What do plants need in order to survive?
Water Light Space Reproduction Air CO2 Heat Nutrients
What are the 3 steps to plant fertilisation?
1) the stigma secretes a sugary substance to attract pollen
2) The pollen tube grows through the style carrying the pollen
3) The pollen and the ovule meet
What are some features of an insect pollinated plant?
- brightly coloured
- strongly scented
- sticky pollen grains
What are some features of an wind pollinated plant?
- large and feathery stigmas
- no scent
- dull colour
- no nectar
- lots of pollen grains
What is the more successful method of pollination? Insect or wind?
What are some methods of seed dispersal?
- animal skin/fur
- birds eating seed
What is germination?
The process where a plant emerges from a seed
what is equation of photosynthesis?
Water + carbon dioxide + light energy - glucose + oxygen
What is photosynthesis?
A chemical reaction in the chloroplasts which uses light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen.
Where in a leaf is glucose stored?
What are the 4 things needed for photosynthesis?
How are leaves adapted for photosynthesis? Give 3 reasons:
- they have a large surface area for absorbing light
- the underside of the leaf is covered in stomata which allow the diffusion of gases
- contain many chloroplasts in the palisade layer which trap light for photosynthesis
What are the functions of the XYLEM and PHLOEM?
Xylem - tubes in a plant that carry water from the roots to the leaves
Phloem- tubes in a plant that transport sugars around the plant
What is the stamen?
Male parts of a flower
What is the anther?
Produces the the male sex cells and is held up by the filament
What is the filament?
Holds up the anther
What is the sepal?
Protects the opened flower and is found underneath the main petals
What is the carpel?
The female parts of a flower
What is the stigma?
Secretes a sticky fluid to collect the pollen grains
What is the style?
Connects the ovary to the stigma
What is the ovary?
Produces the female sex cells or ovules
What is the function of the guard cells?
Control the stomata
What is the function of the palisade cell?
Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis
What parts do only PLANT cells have?
- a cell wall
- a vacuole
How are cells organised? From smallest to biggest:
SMALLEST : tissue
What part of a plant eventually develops into a fruit?
What is the stomata?
Tiny holes on the underside of the leaf that allow diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What are the air spaces?
Allow carbon dioxide to move easily between leaf cells
What is the cuticle?
Transparent, waxy, water proof layer
What is the upper and lower epidermis?
The first and last layers of cells, translucent. Lower epidermis has stomata and guard cells in it
What is the spongy mesophyll/layer?
Stores sugars, amino acids and gases in it. Has air pockets, but not as many chloroplasts as the palisade layer.
What is the palisade layer?
Contains many palisade cells which are packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis
what is the chemical reaction in plants that has a product of carbon dioxide?