# Topic 12 & 13 - The Particle Model and Forces and Matter 12 COMPLETE PK Flashcards

1
Q

1 Name the three states of matter.

A

solid, liquid, gas

2
Q

2 Which of the three states of matter can be compressed?

A

gases

3
Q

3 Why can gases be compressed?

A

particles are far apart

4
Q

4 Which of the three states have a fixed volume?

A

solids and liquids

5
Q

5 Why do solids and liquids have a fixed volume?

A

particles are held together by bonds

6
Q

6 Why do solids keep their shape?

A

Bonds between particles are very strong

7
Q

7 Name a physical change.

A

any change of state named, such as melting, freezing

8
Q

8 What does the density of a substance tell you?

A

the mass for a certain volume

9
Q

9 What two quantities do you need to know to calculate density?

A

mass and volume

10
Q

10 What are the units for these two quantities?

A

kg and m3; accept g and cm3

11
Q

11 What are the units for density?

A

kg/m3 or g/cm3

12
Q

12 What is the equation for calculating density?

A

density = mass/volume

13
Q

13 What usually happens to the density of a substance when it melts?

A

decreases

14
Q

14 Why does this happen?

A

particles are closer together in a solid than in a liquid

15
Q

15 What happens to the mass of a substance when it melts?

A

stays the same

16
Q

16 Is evaporating a physical or a chemical change?

A

physical

17
Q

17 Why is evaporation a physical change?

A

18
Q

18 How is thermal energy stored in a substance?

A

movement of the particles

19
Q

19 What does temperature tell you about the particles in a substance?

A

how fast they are moving/vibrating

20
Q

20 What factors affect the amount of thermal energy stored in a substance?

A

mass, temperature, material

21
Q

21 What property of a substance tells you about the movement of its particles?

A

temperature

22
Q

22 How can you reduce the amount of thermal energy transferred between an object and its surroundings?

A

use insulation

23
Q

23 Name two insulating materials.

A

wool, foam, bubble wrap, or any other sensible suggestions

24
Q

24 Why does a kettle full of water store more energy than a cupful of water at the same temperature?

A

greater mass of water

25
Q

25 Give two other quantities that affect the amount of thermal energy stored in an object.

A

temperature and material

26
Q

26 What does specific heat capacity mean?

A

energy needed to raise 1kg of a substance by 1C

27
Q

27 What happens to the temperature of a substance being heated when it changes state?

A

temperature stops rising while the change in state is happening

28
Q

28 Why does this happen?

A

energy is being used to break bonds between particles

29
Q

29 What does specific latent heat mean?

A

energy needed to change the state of 1kg of a substance

30
Q

30 What are the units for specific latent heat?

A

J/kg

31
Q

32 Give the three factors that affect the amount of thermal energy stored in a substance.

A

mass, temperature, material

32
Q

33 What is the unit for specific heat capacity?

A

J/kg/øC

33
Q

34 What symbol is used for change in thermal energy?

A

Q

34
Q

36 What symbol is used for specific heat capacity?

A

c

35
Q

37 What does specific latent heat meant?

A

energy needed to change the state of 1ÿkg of a substance

36
Q

38 What are the units for specific latent heat?

A

J/kg

37
Q

39 Describe the arrangement of particles in a gas.

A

far apart and moving around quickly

38
Q

40 What causes gas pressure?

A

forces from particles hitting the walls of the container

39
Q

41 How are temperature and kinetic energy related?

A

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles.

40
Q

42 What causes pressure in a gas?

A

forces from particles hitting the walls of the container

41
Q

43 What is the unit for pressure?

A

pascal, or N/m2

42
Q

44 Why does the pressure of a gas increase when it is heated?

A

particles move faster, hit the walls harder and more often

43
Q

45 What name do we give the temperature at which particles would have zero energy/pressure?

A

absolute zero

44
Q

46 What is 0K in degrees Celsius?

A

-273øC

45
Q

47 How do we describe something that deforms but returns to its original shape when forces are removed?

A

elastic

46
Q

48 What do we call the difference between a spring?s stretched length and its original length?

A

extension

47
Q

49 How does the force needed to stretch a spring change as the spring gets longer?

A

increases

48
Q

50 A graph of a relationship between two variables is a straight line through the origin. How do we describe a relationship such as this?

A

directly proportional

49
Q

51 What word do we use to describe something that deforms but returns to its original shape when forces are removed?

A

elastic

50
Q

52 What word do we use to describe something that deforms and does not return to its original shape when forces are removed?

A

inelastic

51
Q

53 What does a linear relationship on a scatter graph look like?

A

a straight line

52
Q

54 What is the difference between the graphs for a linear and a directly proportional relationship?

A

The graph for a directly proportional relationship passes through the origin; a graph for a linear one does not necessarily do so.

53
Q

55 Describe the relationship between the force on a spring and its length, for small forces.

A

linear

54
Q

56 Describe the relationship between the force on a spring and its extension, for small forces.

A

directly proportional

55
Q

57 What happens to the relationship between the force on a spring and its length or extension when the forces become very large?

A

becomes non-linear

56
Q

58 Describe the relationship between the force on a rubber band and its length.

A

non-linear

57
Q

59 What is the spring constant of a spring?

A

force needed to produce a 1m extension

58
Q

60 What is the equation linking the spring constant with the force and extension?

A

force = spring constant x extension

59
Q

Solid particles are in a _____ position

A

fixed

60
Q

True/False: Solid particles vibrate slowly

A

True

61
Q

Solid particles vibrate around a _____ position

A

fixed

62
Q

True/False: Solid particles move around

A

False, they do not move around

63
Q

True/False: Liquid particles move around

A

True

64
Q

Liquid particles move around much more/less than solid particles

A

more

65
Q

True/False: Liquid particles touch each other

A

True

66
Q

True/False: Liquid particles are in a fixed position

A

False, they are not

67
Q

In what way do liquid particles move around?

A

Randomly

68
Q

Liquid particles have limited/free movement

A

limited

69
Q

True/False: Liquid particles are in a confined space

A

True

70
Q

Describe the movement of gas particles

A

They are free to move - they can zip around all over the place

71
Q

In terms of changing state, putting energy in will turn…

A

a solid from a liquid or a liquid to a gas

72
Q

In terms of changing state, taking energy out will turn…

A

a gas into a liquid or a liquid into a solid

73
Q

The process of a solid turning into a liquid is called…

A

melting

74
Q

The process of a liquid turning into a gas is called…

A

evaporating

75
Q

The process of a gas turning into a liquid is called…

A

condensing

76
Q

The process of a liquid turning into a solid is called…

A

freezing

77
Q

What is density?

A

The amount of mass in a set volume

78
Q

What is the equation for density?

A

density = mass / volume

79
Q

When calculating density, what is mass measured in?

A

kg

80
Q

When calculating density, what is volume measured in?

A

m3

81
Q

What is density measured in?

A

kg/m3

82
Q

What is specific heat capacity?

A

How much energy is needed to raise temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degree

83
Q

What is the equation for specific heat capacity?

A

Change in energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature

84
Q

When calculating specific heat capacity, what are the units for change in energy?

A

J

85
Q

When calculating specific heat capacity, what are the units for mass?

A

kg

86
Q

When calculating specific heat capacity, what are the units for change in temperature?

A

oC

87
Q

What are the units for specific heat capacity?

A

J/kg oC

88
Q

What is specific latent heat?

A

How much energy is needed to change a substance from a solid to a liquid at the melting point

89
Q

If a substance is pure, it will change _________ from a solid to a liquid at one temperature

A

instantly

90
Q

What is the equation for specific latent heat?

A

Energy = mass x specific latent heat

91
Q

When calculating specific latent heat, what are the units for energy?

A

J

92
Q

When calculating specific latent heat, what are the units for mass?

A

kg

93
Q

What are the units for specific latent heat?

A

J/kg

94
Q

What shapes will be on a graph looking at the collection of molecules in a system and the amount of energy they have?

A

2 bell shaped curves

95
Q

At low temperatures, there will be more/less molecules that have less energy

A

more

96
Q

At low temperatures, there will be lots/few molecules that have high energy

A

few

97
Q

At high temperatures, more/less molecules have more energy

A

more

98
Q

How can the average kinetic energy be calculated from a graph?

A

The area under the graph

99
Q

More/less molecules at a high temperature compared to a low temperature will pass the threshhold for evaporation

A

more

100
Q

True/False: Evaporation increases the average kinetic energy of a system

A

False, it lowers it

101
Q

What is the equation for pressure?

A

Pressure = volume x constant

102
Q

What are the units for pressure?

A

Pa

103
Q

When calculating pressure, what are the units for volume?

A

m3

104
Q

What happens at absolute zero?

A

There is so little movement of particles in a solid that we cannot meaure it