Topic 2 Medical Model Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 Medical Model Deck (20):
1

Background

-Biomedical model views disorders as being the result of biological malfunctions/disruption
-treatment reduce the effects of those malfunctions biologically through drugs, surgery etc

2

Monoamines in Depression

Neurotransmitters called monoamines includes serotonin, noradrenaline &dopamine.
-Dopamine regulates our mood
-Noradrenaline is implicated in activity levels.
-Serotonin controls activity of dopamine &noradrenaline.

3

Hypothesis of monoamines in Depression

1)Reduction in serotonin levels (follow stressful events)-failure to regulate dopamine &noradrenaline-disrupts moos&activity levels.
2)Disruption of monoamines levels-High level of enzymes that breaks down monoamines-reduce their actions&disrupts the passage of information around the brain.

4

Dopamine in schizophrenia

1)Excess of dopamine in centres of the brain responsible for speech may cause hallucinations of voices.
2)Low activity of dopamine in pre frontal cortex(thinking&decision making) May explain symptoms such as apathy and incoherent thought or speech.

5

Genetic explanations?

-Genes are sections of DNA that contains instructions for producing physical structures including the brain, neurotransmitters &enzymes that breaths them down.
-it can influence the nature of physical structures of chemical level in the nervous system.

6

Genetic Vulnerability in Depression

-Stressful life events-Depression.
Genes may effect how resilient &vulnerable we are.
Eg; serotonin transporter gene comes in 3 (long-long, long-short, short-short), short-short leads to inefficient serotonin production. Less resilient to the effects is stress &are more vulnerable to respond to stress with depression.

7

Genetic vulnerability in schizophrenia

-Can be genetically influenced-family member.
-polygenic- influenced by over 100 genes
-aetiologically heterogeneous- different combination of factors can lead to similar symptoms

8

Brain abnormality in Depression

-Studies suggested frontal lobe is involved in thinking.
1)Coffey et al-mean frontal lobe volume in depressed patient smaller.
2)milo et al-frontal lobe in depressed patients don’t draw on blood flow in the brain as they normally do-hyper fusion.

9

Brain abnormalities in schizophrenia?

1)Pardon et al-Involves problem with left hemisphere.
2)jackel et al-Negative correlation between activity levels in ventral striatum&severity of negative symptoms.
3)Allen at al-Low activation levels in superior temporal gyrus &anterior cingulate gyrus- Hallucinations

10

Aim of Gottesman?

Compare vulnerability to mental illness of offspring with one or both parents having a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

11

Sample

-2.7million danish people
-196 couples schizophrenia; 280 children
-83 couples bipolar disorder: 146 children

12

Design

Cohort study
Natural experiment

13

IV&DV?

-IV parental schizophrenia/Bipolar disorder-operationalised in accordance with ICD.
-DV diagnosis of any mental illness in offspring- operationalised ICD

14

Results

-schizophrenia & bipolar diagnosis by BOTH parents increased chance of offspring getting a diagnosis(27.3% schizophrenia &24.95% bipolar).
-diagnosis for mental illness in general (schizophrenia 67.5% &44.2%).

15

Conclusion

Both parents with serious mental illness increases the risk of their offspring developing not only that disorder but mental illness in general

16

What’s MAOI’s?

Monoamines oxidase inhibitors; prevent breakdown of serotonin,Noradrenaline & dopamine so they build up

17

What’s Tricyclics ?

Prevent serotonin and noradrenaline being transformed after they have crossed a synapse increasing their levels

18

What’s SSRI’s?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Eg; Prozac and Seroxat
Stop serotonin being re absorbed and broken down after it arises a synapse

19

What’s NRI’s?

Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors
Stops noradrenaline being reabsorbed and broken down after it has crossed a synapse

20

What’s ECT(electro convulsive therapy)?

-For Depression
-administering electric shock to the head,inducing a seizure.
-Modern use: small shocks short period given under anaesthetics and given drugs to prevent broken bones