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Flashcards in Topic 3- Medicine Through Time Deck (86)
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1

How did you feel when the 4 humours were out of balance?

Unwell
Illness occurs when you feel too much or too little of one of the humours.

2

Who developed the theory of opposites?

Galen

3

What was uroscopy?

The study of urine

Doctors would look and taste a patients urine to try to see which of the 4 humours were out of balance.

Would also use a urine chart. Samples were matched against a colour, which helped make a diagnosis

4

What was the zodiac man?

An astrological chart of the human body, linked to start signs

Surgeons believed it showed them when they could operate on different parts of the body

Was a continuation of superstition in medical knowledge and did not improve medicine

5

What was alchemy and how did it help to develop medicine?

The attempt to turn base metals into gold.

During the process lots of new equipment was invented which were then used to make herbal potions

6

What does the Renaissance stand for?

Rebirth.

7

When was the Renaissance and what were some major developments?

1500-1700

Famous for discoveries in science, geography and art. It led to a breakthrough in medicine.

developments in the printing press and technology

8

In the Middle Ages, what two things were used to bleed people?

Leeches
Special tools

9

What was Vesalius's specialism?

Anatomy

10

What happened before Vesalius ?

That the books of Galen and other ancient doctors were correct
Church against dissection, surgeons only allowed to dissect corpse of criminals
No fridges to preserve bodies

11

What did Vesalius prove?

Galen said jaw was made of two pieces of bone, Vesalius proved it was just one

Galen said blood moves from one side of the heart to the other through holes is the septum. Vesalius proved this wrong.

Galen said liver has fives lobes. Vesalius proves it has two.

12

What factors helped Vesalius to make his discoveries?

Printing- book printed widely

Challenged beliefs

Individual skill

Art- accurate drawings

Dissections- was finally allowed on humans

13

What was Pare's specialism?

Surgery

14

What was Vesalius's book called and when was it published?

'The fabric of the human body'
1543

15

What was Pare's book called and when was it published?

'Works on surgery'
1575

16

What ideas about surgery was there before pare?

Surgeons thought speed was best when dealing with operations
Hot oil and iron was used on battlefields to seal wounds quickly
They believed hot oil would kill 'poisons' that they thought were in gunshot wounds.

17

What new methods did Pare discover?

Instead of sealing wounds with hot oil, he made an ointment of milk, egg yolks, roses and turpentine. Men healed better and less painful

Instead of using hot iron to stop bleeding, he used ligatures (silk thread) to seal arteries- less pain. However could carry infection and was slow.

18

What factors helped Pare to make his discoveries?

Printing- allowed book to be widely read

Chance- running out of oil

War- gives a chance to practice on people

Own intelligence

19

What are the 4 humours?

A theory developed by Greek and Roman doctors and continued to dominate medicine in the Middle Ages

It was believed that the body contained 4 important liquids called humours.

If the humours were balanced then the person was healthy. If a person was ill then their humours were out of balance

Treatment was based around balancing the humours

Blood, Black bile, Yellow bile, Phlegm

20

What was Harvey's specialism?

The circulation of blood

21

What was Harvey's book called and when was it published?

An anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood in animals

1628

22

What did people think and believe before Harvey's discoveries?

Some of Galens ideas were still believed
Eg thought blood was made in the liver and that it was burned up. The heart was just seen as something blood passed through.

The mechanical water pump was being invented and used for the first time.

23

What did Harvey do and find out?

He dissected cold blooded living animals whose heart was still beating so he could see the movement of each muscle in the heart.
Dissected human hearts

Found out :
The heart is a pump
Blood is reused
Knew differences between arteries and veins
Blood only flows one way.

24

What factors helped Harvey to find his discoveries?

Water pump- may have given him the idea that the heart is a pump

Previous knowledge- had the work of other great doctors to build up his theory eg Vesalius

Individual skills- dedicated

25

When was the first heart transplant?

1967

26

When did Pasteur come up with the germ theory?

1861

27

What was miasma?

The theory that bad air causes infection

28

Who proved specific bacteria causes specific disease?

Kock
He was a German doctor

29

How did Pasteur kill bacteria in wine?

By boiling it

30

Who invented the microscope?

Leeuwenhoek