Flashcards in Topic 3- Medicine Through Time Deck (86)
How did you feel when the 4 humours were out of balance?
Illness occurs when you feel too much or too little of one of the humours.
Who developed the theory of opposites?
What was uroscopy?
The study of urine
Doctors would look and taste a patients urine to try to see which of the 4 humours were out of balance.
Would also use a urine chart. Samples were matched against a colour, which helped make a diagnosis
What was the zodiac man?
An astrological chart of the human body, linked to start signs
Surgeons believed it showed them when they could operate on different parts of the body
Was a continuation of superstition in medical knowledge and did not improve medicine
What was alchemy and how did it help to develop medicine?
The attempt to turn base metals into gold.
During the process lots of new equipment was invented which were then used to make herbal potions
What does the Renaissance stand for?
When was the Renaissance and what were some major developments?
Famous for discoveries in science, geography and art. It led to a breakthrough in medicine.
developments in the printing press and technology
In the Middle Ages, what two things were used to bleed people?
What was Vesalius's specialism?
What happened before Vesalius ?
That the books of Galen and other ancient doctors were correct
Church against dissection, surgeons only allowed to dissect corpse of criminals
No fridges to preserve bodies
What did Vesalius prove?
Galen said jaw was made of two pieces of bone, Vesalius proved it was just one
Galen said blood moves from one side of the heart to the other through holes is the septum. Vesalius proved this wrong.
Galen said liver has fives lobes. Vesalius proves it has two.
What factors helped Vesalius to make his discoveries?
Printing- book printed widely
Art- accurate drawings
Dissections- was finally allowed on humans
What was Pare's specialism?
What was Vesalius's book called and when was it published?
'The fabric of the human body'
What was Pare's book called and when was it published?
'Works on surgery'
What ideas about surgery was there before pare?
Surgeons thought speed was best when dealing with operations
Hot oil and iron was used on battlefields to seal wounds quickly
They believed hot oil would kill 'poisons' that they thought were in gunshot wounds.
What new methods did Pare discover?
Instead of sealing wounds with hot oil, he made an ointment of milk, egg yolks, roses and turpentine. Men healed better and less painful
Instead of using hot iron to stop bleeding, he used ligatures (silk thread) to seal arteries- less pain. However could carry infection and was slow.
What factors helped Pare to make his discoveries?
Printing- allowed book to be widely read
Chance- running out of oil
War- gives a chance to practice on people
What are the 4 humours?
A theory developed by Greek and Roman doctors and continued to dominate medicine in the Middle Ages
It was believed that the body contained 4 important liquids called humours.
If the humours were balanced then the person was healthy. If a person was ill then their humours were out of balance
Treatment was based around balancing the humours
Blood, Black bile, Yellow bile, Phlegm
What was Harvey's specialism?
The circulation of blood
What was Harvey's book called and when was it published?
An anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood in animals
What did people think and believe before Harvey's discoveries?
Some of Galens ideas were still believed
Eg thought blood was made in the liver and that it was burned up. The heart was just seen as something blood passed through.
The mechanical water pump was being invented and used for the first time.
What did Harvey do and find out?
He dissected cold blooded living animals whose heart was still beating so he could see the movement of each muscle in the heart.
Dissected human hearts
Found out :
The heart is a pump
Blood is reused
Knew differences between arteries and veins
Blood only flows one way.
What factors helped Harvey to find his discoveries?
Water pump- may have given him the idea that the heart is a pump
Previous knowledge- had the work of other great doctors to build up his theory eg Vesalius
Individual skills- dedicated
When was the first heart transplant?
When did Pasteur come up with the germ theory?
What was miasma?
The theory that bad air causes infection
Who proved specific bacteria causes specific disease?
He was a German doctor
How did Pasteur kill bacteria in wine?
By boiling it