Topic 5d - Animal & Human Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 5d - Animal & Human Nutrition Deck (44):
1

Molecules needed for growth & reproduction include...?

energy (carbs & lipids)
water
some AAs
some FAs
vitamins & minerals
(all are essential except carbs & lipids)

2

What provides energy from energy molecules?

chemical bonds

3

How is a calorie quantified?

the heat to raise 1kg of water by 1 degree

4

1 kilojoule = ... calorie

0.239 Cal

5

How many essential AAs do humans require?

9 (10 in infants)

6

Essential fatty acids are required for synthesis of ...?

hormones

7

2 essential FAs in humans...?

linoleic & linolenic

8

What roles do minerals play in the body...?

structural (Ca, Mg, P)
muscle/nerve function (Na, Ca, K)
blood function (Fe, Cu)
enzyme function (Zn, Mg)
digestion (Cl)

9

A bit about water-soluble vitamins...? eg?

most function as co-enzymes
NOT STORED in the body
vit B & vit C

10

A bit about fat-soluble vitamins...? eg?

variety of roles
vit K - blood clotting
vit A - visual pigments
vit D - bone formation
vit E - antioxidant

11

Protein nutrient deficiencies...? eg?

kwashiorkor
marasmus

12

Mineral deficiencies...? eg. calcium causes ...?

rickets
osteoporosis

13

Iodine deficiency causes ...?

goitre

14

Iron deficiency causes...?

anaemia

15

Vitamin A deficiency = ?

night blindness

16

Vit D deficiency = ?

rickets
osteoporosis

17

Vit K deficiency = ?

clotting deficiency

18

Vit C deficiency = ?

scurvy

19

Vit B1 deficiency = ?

beriberi

20

Vit B3 deficiency = ?

pellagra (gross skin condition)

21

T or F - really difficult to overdose on water-soluble vitamins

true

22

T or F - impossible to overdose on fat-soluble vitamins

false - it's possible but only from supplements

23

What is the most common fat-soluble overdose condition?

hypervitaminosis A

24

5 major steps in digestion...?

ingestion
mechanical digestion
chemical digestion (molecular breakdown)
absorption
excretion/elimination

25

What is intracelluar digestion?

digestion within individual cells
food is limited to microscopic particles

26

In sponges, describe food digestion

H2O carries food particles -> H2O pores -> collar cells -> water, uneaten food & waste expelled thru large opening at one end of the sponge

27

In weird bacteria thing, describe food digestion

food particles filtered from water by collar -> food enters collar cells via phagocytosis forming food vacuole-> food vacoule merges with lysosome & digestive enzymes -> waste expelled via exocytosis

28

What is extracellular digestion?

food broken down in chamber that mixes food with digestive enzymes (eg. gastrovascular cavity simplest form found in cnidaria)

29

What kind of digestive tract does a worm have?

tubular (one-way tube) food -> mouth -> anus -> out

30

Teeth in carnivores?

canines & sharpened molars

31

Teeth in herbivores?

incisors & flattened molars

32

Teeth in omnivores?

incisors & flattened molars

33

What does a crop do?

stores & moistens food

34

What does the stomach chamber 1 do?

secretes protein digesting enzymes and begins protein secretion

35

What does the stomach chamber 2 do?

(gizzard) crushes & grinds food

36

4 chambers of ruminants...?

Rumen - houses microbes that breakdown cellulose & absorb
Reticulum - forms cud -> regurgitated & rechewed
Omasum - absorbs H2O & salt & small organic molecules released by microbes
Abomasum - acid & protein-digesting enzymes -> protein digestion

37

Hindgut fermentation...?

- Soluble sugars & AAs absorbed after digestion by animal's own enzymes
- cellulose digested by microbes after soluble nutrients have ben absorbed
- animal absorbs FAs excreted by symbionts

38

T or F - biomass of symbionts can be recovered by host

false

39

What is caecotrophy?

poo eating (fucken rabbits)

40

What is the pyloric sphincter?

sphincter between stomach & SI (duodenum)

41

Stomach secretions...?

pepsinogen - precursor to pepsin (protein digestion -> peptides)
HCl - food hydrolysis & pH for pepsinogen -> pepsin
mucus - protects stomach cells from digestive enzymes

42

Re. SI, enzymes are secreted by...?

liver - bile (emulsifies lipids)
pancreas - pancreatic juice (water, sodium, bicarbonate, various enzymes)
SI itself - peptide & disaccharide (protein & carb) digesting enzymes

43

~ length of SI?

2.5 - 3m

44

Large intestine functions?

excretion
site of vitamin synthesis by endosymbiotic bacteria
MAJOR site of water absorption