Flashcards in Topic 5d - Animal & Human Nutrition Deck (44):
Molecules needed for growth & reproduction include...?
energy (carbs & lipids)
vitamins & minerals
(all are essential except carbs & lipids)
What provides energy from energy molecules?
How is a calorie quantified?
the heat to raise 1kg of water by 1 degree
1 kilojoule = ... calorie
How many essential AAs do humans require?
9 (10 in infants)
Essential fatty acids are required for synthesis of ...?
2 essential FAs in humans...?
linoleic & linolenic
What roles do minerals play in the body...?
structural (Ca, Mg, P)
muscle/nerve function (Na, Ca, K)
blood function (Fe, Cu)
enzyme function (Zn, Mg)
A bit about water-soluble vitamins...? eg?
most function as co-enzymes
NOT STORED in the body
vit B & vit C
A bit about fat-soluble vitamins...? eg?
variety of roles
vit K - blood clotting
vit A - visual pigments
vit D - bone formation
vit E - antioxidant
Protein nutrient deficiencies...? eg?
Mineral deficiencies...? eg. calcium causes ...?
Iodine deficiency causes ...?
Iron deficiency causes...?
Vitamin A deficiency = ?
Vit D deficiency = ?
Vit K deficiency = ?
Vit C deficiency = ?
Vit B1 deficiency = ?
Vit B3 deficiency = ?
pellagra (gross skin condition)
T or F - really difficult to overdose on water-soluble vitamins
T or F - impossible to overdose on fat-soluble vitamins
false - it's possible but only from supplements
What is the most common fat-soluble overdose condition?
5 major steps in digestion...?
chemical digestion (molecular breakdown)
What is intracelluar digestion?
digestion within individual cells
food is limited to microscopic particles
In sponges, describe food digestion
H2O carries food particles -> H2O pores -> collar cells -> water, uneaten food & waste expelled thru large opening at one end of the sponge
In weird bacteria thing, describe food digestion
food particles filtered from water by collar -> food enters collar cells via phagocytosis forming food vacuole-> food vacoule merges with lysosome & digestive enzymes -> waste expelled via exocytosis
What is extracellular digestion?
food broken down in chamber that mixes food with digestive enzymes (eg. gastrovascular cavity simplest form found in cnidaria)
What kind of digestive tract does a worm have?
tubular (one-way tube) food -> mouth -> anus -> out
Teeth in carnivores?
canines & sharpened molars
Teeth in herbivores?
incisors & flattened molars
Teeth in omnivores?
incisors & flattened molars
What does a crop do?
stores & moistens food
What does the stomach chamber 1 do?
secretes protein digesting enzymes and begins protein secretion
What does the stomach chamber 2 do?
(gizzard) crushes & grinds food
4 chambers of ruminants...?
Rumen - houses microbes that breakdown cellulose & absorb
Reticulum - forms cud -> regurgitated & rechewed
Omasum - absorbs H2O & salt & small organic molecules released by microbes
Abomasum - acid & protein-digesting enzymes -> protein digestion
- Soluble sugars & AAs absorbed after digestion by animal's own enzymes
- cellulose digested by microbes after soluble nutrients have ben absorbed
- animal absorbs FAs excreted by symbionts
T or F - biomass of symbionts can be recovered by host
What is caecotrophy?
poo eating (fucken rabbits)
What is the pyloric sphincter?
sphincter between stomach & SI (duodenum)
pepsinogen - precursor to pepsin (protein digestion -> peptides)
HCl - food hydrolysis & pH for pepsinogen -> pepsin
mucus - protects stomach cells from digestive enzymes
Re. SI, enzymes are secreted by...?
liver - bile (emulsifies lipids)
pancreas - pancreatic juice (water, sodium, bicarbonate, various enzymes)
SI itself - peptide & disaccharide (protein & carb) digesting enzymes
~ length of SI?
2.5 - 3m