Topic 6 (a) ICT in business Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 6 (a) ICT in business Deck (49):

Features of CAD/ CAM packages

- CAD uses vector-based graphics
- Can create/ manipulate virtual 3D images
- Designs can be produced in layers
- Different 'skins' rendered on- Users canto framework skeletons
- Links to analysis software
- Linked to CAM for computer controlled manufacture


What is a CAD package?

CAD packages are sophisticated software designing programs used by engineers, architects and professional designers to develop new products. In the past designers needed to use pencils and rulers to design products.


First advantage of CAD packages

- CAD programs use vector-based graphics (rather than bit maps) which allow for complex manipulation of the image and greater levels of precision.


Second advantage of CAD packages

- Users can draw accurate straight lines or arcs of different types and thicknesses and create virtual 3D images from their data.


Third advantage of CAD packages

- Users can also view objects from different perspectives, and designs can be produced in a layers to show different information e.g. electrical wiring, gas pipes and control systems in a factory.


Fourth advantage of CAD packages

- Framework skeletons can be produced and 'rendered' in a variety of 'skins' to create solid effects, e.g. car can be shown as both skeletal design and as a finished product.


Limitations of CAD packages

- Operations such as rendering images, rotating/ resizing are all memory intensive so that CAD systems require fast processors, large amounts of Random Access Memory (RAM) for smooth on-screen translations and large amounts of hard disc space to hold the software and files. It will also require powerful graphics processing capacity.
- Designers will need extensive training to make use of all the features


What is CAD/CAM

When output from a CAD process is used to control a manufacturing process this is known as CADCAM (Computer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacturer). For example, a new design of alloy car wheel could be directly from a solid block of aluminium by a metal-cutting lathe controlled by the computer CAD/ CAM software.


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Rotate in CAD/ CAM software

Can rotate in 3D across X Y and Z axis.
Advantage: See design from all angles on the outside.


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Walkthrough in CAD/ CAM software

Visit rooms in 2D.
Advantage: Allows the designer to see in a virtual realty way what the inside of the building will look like as if you were walking through the real thing.


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Stress and strain in CAD/ CAM software

Working out the weights materials can take.
Advantage: Allows the designer to see if there are any load bearing problems with the design before it is built to avoid disaster.


Describe and give and advantage of the feature Wire drawings in CAD/ CAM software

See design without any finishes or solid form.
Advantage: Helps with perspective and requires less processing to display so loads more quickly for investigations.


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Hatching and rendering in CAD/ CAM software

Different finishes or materials can be displayed.
Advantage: Can do many 'what if' type investigations to explore the best finishes


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Zoom in CAD/ CAM software

Enhance parts of a drawing to make it bigger
Advantage: To produce work of more detail or add detailed design


Describe and give an advantage of the feature Costings in CAD/ CAM software

Produce estimate of cost of building materials
Advantage: Automatic estimates are given and designer can investigate different options or work within a budget.


Describe and give an advantage of the feature 2D/3D in CAD/ CAM software

To turn a flat 2D image of an object into a 3D view – image becomes a 3D solid image.
Advantage: it helps with understanding how the final object will look like. It adds realism e.g. house 2D into 3D so customer can see how the roof construction looks and what potential roof space may look like


First example of the use of CAD/ CAM software (Kitchen)

Kitchen Design software allows customers to 'build' their ideal kitchens, including furniture and appliances selected from on-screen catalogues, and to visualise the final designs from any angle or by 'walking through' the virtual 3D images. Associated software will work out the total cost of the kitchens as each unit is added, allowing customers to make changes which reflect their budgets.


Second example of the use of CAD/ CAM software (Home and Garden design)

Home and Garden Design software allows walk-throughs of virtual gardens, with customers able to visualise their plantings as they would be during the flowering season, any other time of the year or indeed, in the future. Plants and garden furniture can be added from on-screen catalogues and costs calculated etc.


Third example of the use of CAD/ CAM software (Fashion)

In the fashion industry, patterns for new trousers can be worked out using CAD software to minimise wastage when cutting out. The new designs are then fed into CAM enabled machines which cut out the new patterns precisely.


Information on Computer based shopping system

- Nowadays less dependence on cash
- Several electronic payment methods
- Smart Cards have chip used for auto debit/ credit
- EFT is computer based WAN system used by banks to transfer money between accounts.
- Credit Cards and Debit Cards employ EFT.
- Encryption of credit card details offers security for on-line purchasing.


What is EFT?

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is a computer-based system used 24/7 by banks internationally to transfer money between customer accounts. The software must be capable of handling large numbers of transactions per second.


How does EFT work?

1. When a customer pays by EFT using a Credit Card or Debit Card, the card is 'swiped' through a reader that reads the details from the magnetic stripe.

2. The reader is connected via a WAN to a central bank computer that checks the details of the proposed transaction against the customer's bank account.

3. If funds are sufficient an authorisation code is sent back – this has to happen within a few seconds or the customer will become impatient and a queue will build up at the Point of Sale (POS).

4. If the response authorises the payment the sale is then completed.


Advantages of EFT

- Banks get the money into their accounts almost instantly
- Customers do not have to carry exact money


Disadvantages of EFT

- Customers need to have a bank account
- Heavily reliant on communications network working


What is EPOS?

Electronic Point of Sale systems (EPOS) are used at supermarket tills in addition to electronic funds transfer to become, Electronic Funds Transfer at Point Of Sale (EFTPOS).


Advantages of EPOS

- facilitate automatic control of stock
- feedback on the sales performance of different products, which can then be analysed.


Disadvantages of EPOS

- Can be expensive to implement and maintain


What are Loyalty cards?

In the retail industry, Loyalty Cards (also known as Club Cards or Points Cards) are often given to customers to identify them as members of a loyalty scheme and to encourage loyal buying behaviour (this is potentially beneficial to the company). They look like credit cards and have a barcode or magnetic stripe that can easily be scanned at the POS.


Advantages of Loyalty cards

In the retail industry, Loyalty Cards (also known as Club Cards or Points Cards) are often given to customers to identify them as members of a loyalty scheme and to encourage loyal buying behaviour (this is potentially beneficial to the company). They look like credit cards and have a barcode or magnetic stripe that can easily be scanned at the POS.


Disadvantages of Loyalty cards

- Customers may feel their shopping habits are being spied upon
- Complex software required to analyse shopping patterns costing the company money for expert staff


Computer based shopping: Online and E commerce

- On-line shopping offers shops large audience and reduced overheads - customers have wider choice and convenience of shopping from home.

- Danger of fraud shopping on-line.


What is Online shopping and E commerce

Shopping via the Internet (e-commerce) is taking an increasingly large share of the market. Products and services can be ordered from on-line 'virtual shops' and money transferred electronically to pay for them.


Advantages of Online shopping and E commerce

- Even small companies can now reach a far larger audience with an Internet web site, sending deliveries all over the world.
- Web-based businesses do not necessarily require a high street shop or the staff to run it, and hence overheads can be cut dramatically.
- Customers do not need to travel long distances to shops or struggle home with their purchases - particularly useful for those with disabilities.


Disadvantages of Online shopping and E commerce

- Anybody can set up an on-line business, there are fraudulent sites on the Internet claiming to sell goods which do not exist.

- Credit card details can be intercepted, there is a risk that criminals may pay for goods or withdraw cash using your account. As a result, many people are anxious about giving out credit card details on-line, despite assurances from businesses that encryption systems and secure links protect their transactions.


Computer Based shopping: Bar codes and pricing

o Information coded into series of black/ white stripes.
o European Article Number (EAN) printed underneath in case of scanner read-error.
o Read by scanners which detect patterns of reflected light.

o Contain codes for country of origin, manufacturer and unique product identifier. The price is not included in bar code.

o Bar code validated by check digit.

o Used for product sales, library book loans, stock management, product tracking during assembly.

o Prices contained within separate easily-updated database - once product identified through bar code, price is looked up in database.

o Fast/ accurate product identification. Facilitates special pricing deals


What are barcodes?

Bar codes are used as a means of identification, and the pattern of black and white stripes represents a code. The codes are read by various sorts of scanners which detect patterns of reflected light and encode the data into computer-readable form. In supermarkets the bar codes contain codes for country of origin, the manufacturer and a also have unique product identifier. A unique number for that product is printed beneath the bar code in case the reader has failed to read the bar code – the operator can then key in the code for the product directly.


Advantages of barcodes

- More accurate eliminates typing errors
- Low printing costs can be printed on standard sticky labels
- Frees staff to do other tasks because they don't have to manually price goods
- Faster to enter data because can read at any angle reducing wait time for customers/


Disadvantages of barcodes

- Can only be used for the input of numbers
- Equipment is expensive to buy and maintain
- Corrupted barcodes can cause delays


What are bar codes used for?

Bar codes are used for product sales in the retail trade, book loans in libraries, package tracking by delivery firms, stock management in warehouses and tracking of assembly-line manufactured goods e.g. cars, through stages of assembly.


PRICING - use in supermarkets for pricing their items using a bracode

Because of automated sales systems (Bar code scanners/ EPOS etc) it is easy for supermarkets to organise their pricing of goods. The scanned bar code identifies the item to the computer and the computer then refers to a database of priced to find the prices associated with that item.


Does the bar code contain the price of the good?

The bar code does not include pricing information.


How are changes to the pricing of items made?

Changes to the prices of items are made by editing the database (and not replacing the sticky labels or the bar codes on every individual item).


What other deals can ICT-based systems offer customers

ICT-based systems cab also offer customers special deals such as 'three for the price of two' or 'buy one get one free', which are administered automatically through the computerised system and appear on the customers printed itemised receipt.


STOCK CONTROL SYSTEMS bullet pointed information

- Each item scanned at EPOS is removed from database until minimum stock level is reached;
- new stock ordered from warehouse automatically


Automatic stock control information

Supermarkets with EPOS and bar code scanning systems are able to control their stock automatically. Computers in shops and warehouses are linked via a wide area network (WAN).


What happens in automatic stock control after an item is scanned?

1. The code and details for that item are looked up in the stock database
2. the stock level for that item is reduced in the stock database
3. when the stock level in the database reaches its minimum level, extra stock is ordered from the warehouse
4. this will be added to the next SCHEDULED delivery


What happens when an item of stock falls below a pre-set minimum stock level

The computer automatically sends a message to the warehouse warning that more stock is required. The warehouse computer will produce a 'picking list' of the items to be dispatched and in some warehouses this will be done by computer controlled fork lift trucks.


Advantages of automated stock control

- Supermarkets can lower costs by reducing individual stock levels (less storage, less wastage) and hence stock a wider range of products.
- The shop can respond more quickly if there are changes in demand (although they can still be caught out by sudden changes in buying patterns and may find themselves without stock)


Disadvantages of automatic stock control

-ICT systems are expensive to set up and maintain and require expertise to keep them running.