Flashcards in Topic 7 Deck (200)
What hormone(s) does the pituitary gland produce?
•Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
•Luteinising hormone (LH)
•Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
What hormone(s) does the thyroid gland produce?
What hormone(s) does the adrenal gland produce?
What hormone(s) does the pancreas produce?
What hormone(s) does the ovaries produce?
What hormone(s) does the testes produce?
Where is the pituitary gland located?
in the brain
where is the thyroid gland located?
in the neck (thyroid)
where is the adrenal gland located?
just above the kidneys
where is the pancreas located?
near the kidneys
where are the ovaries located?
just below the hip
where are the testes located?
just below the hip
how does adrenalin affect heart rate?
•adrenalin increases heart rate because it increases pressure in the coronary arteries.
• increased pressure in the coronary arteries leads to increased heart rate because the more frequently the heart beats, the higher the blood pressure as more blood is being pumped through the arteries.
• additionally, adrenaline affects the relaxation and contraction of the muscles in the heart, this results in the heart contracting more frequently and therefore heart rate increases.
how does adrenaline affect blood flow?
•adrenaline increases blood flow by increasing the pressure in the coronary artery which leads to increased heart rate. Therefore blood flow increases as the heart contracts to pump blood through the arteries.
• blood flow will increase as blood pressure and heart rate increase as all of the factors are linked and correlate.
•as the heart rate increases, more blood is pumped around the body more quickly, blood pressure increases resulting in the blood having to flow more quickly, however, exceedingly increased blood pressure decreases the blood flow due to the blood pressure making it more difficult for the blood to flow quickly and easily (efficiently.)
how does adrenaline affect blood pressure?
•adrenaline increases blood pressure as adrenaline increases heart rate. The increased heart rate forces blood to flow more quickly through narrow arteries, resulting in increased blood pressure.
•adrenaline also narrows arteries which increases blood pressure as the blood has less area to flow through - much like when cholesterol prevents blood from flowing as quickly - increasing blood pressure.
how does adrenaline affect blood sugar levels?
•as well as binding to specific receptors in the heart to increase heart rate, adrenaline binds to receptors in the liver which causes the liver to release glucose (by breaking down its glycogen stores as in homeostasis).
•the glucose is added to the blood and therefore blood sugar levels increase.
•adrenaline stimulates the liver to release glucose so that there is enough energy available for the "fight or flight" response which adrenaline prepares the body for.
What mechanism controls thyroxine levels to maintain metabolic rate?
the negative feedback mechanism
what happens when thyroxine levels are too high?
•the hypothalamus is stimulated to inhibit the release of the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
• reduced Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) reduces the production of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the pituitary gland.
• reduced thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reduces the production of thyroxine in the thyroid gland.
•the thyroxine level decreases/reduces.
•the thyroxine levels return to normal.
what happens when thyroxine levels are too low?
•the hypothalamus is stimulated to release thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
•thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
•thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine.
•the thyroxine level increases
• the thyroxine levels return to normal
how many stages are there to the menstrual cycle?
there are 4 stages to the menstrual cycle
what happens during the first stage of the menstrual cycle?
•during days 1-7 menstruation begins.
•the lining of the uterus breaks down and is released.
•FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is released by the pituitary gland and causes a follicle (an egg and its surrounding cells) to mature in one of the ovaries.
•the FSH production stimulates oestrogen production.
what happens during stage 2 of the menstrual cycle?
•oestrogen production is stimulated by FSH production and is released by the ovaries.
•the uterus lining (the endometrium) is repaired from day 4 to day 14 as oestrogen causes the endometrium to thicken and grow.
•the endometrium become a thick spongy layer of blood vessels in preparation for a fertilised egg to implant there.
•a high level, of oestrogen stimulates a surge in LH (luteinising hormone) production.
what happens during stage 3 of the menstrual cycle?
•at day 14 LH is released by the pituitary gland and stimulates ovulation.
• the follicle ruptures and the egg is released from ovary, this is ovulation.
•LH stimulates the remains of the follicle to develop into a structure called the corpus luteum.
•the corpus luteum secretes progesterone.
what happens during stage 4 of the menstrual cycle?
•progesterone is released by the corpus luteum following ovulation.
•progesterone maintains the endometrium and inhibits the production of LH and FSH.
•if fertilisation has not taken place then the corpus luteum fades away. as the corpus luteum secrets progesterone the progesterone level will decrease.
•when the levels of progesterone decrease and there is a low oestrogen level, the endometrium breaks down.
•the uterine lining detaches at around day 28,
•the low progesterone level allows FSH to increase so the menstrual cycle starts again.
what is the endometrium?
the uterus lining
what does FSH stand for?
Follicle stimulating hormone
what does LH stand for?
where is FSH released from?
the pituitary gland
where is oestrogen released from?