Flashcards in Topic Three Deck (95):
What kinds of micro-organisms?
How many cells do micro-organisms usually have?
How does a virus reproduce?
It attacks the healthy cells of its host. Through this process the healthy cell is damaged
What is a group of bacteria called?
What do bacteria look like?
What is the scientific name for rod shaped bacteria?
What is the scientific name for circular bacteria?
What is the scientific name for spiral bacteria?
What are examples of protists?
What are fungi?
Micro organisms that feed off of other organisms
How does mold grow?
On its food
What are hyphae?
The "roots" of fungi. They send out enzymes that digest the food below them, then they absorb the nutrients.
What is a micrograph?
A photo of something very small
How much is one nanometer?
How much is one micrometer?
What is the formula to work out the length of a micro organism?
The length of the organism, divided by the length of the scale bar, multiplied by the scale.
What is a longitudinal section?
The length of the object
What is a cross section?
The breadth of an object
What is a micro-organism?
A very small thing that performs the seven life processes
What can viruses cause?
Flu or cold
What does TB mean?
Where does tuberculosis come from?
Bacteria that usually infect the lungs
How is TB spread?
Through the air
What are the symptoms of TB?
Coughing up blood
What is AIDS?
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Where does AIDS come from?
Viruses that attack the white blood cells of the immune system
How is AIDS deadly?
Infected by another disease, but can't fight back
What are the symptoms of AIDS?
How is AIDS transmitted?
Sharing hypodermic needles
Contact with infected blood
Transfer from mother to child during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Where does malaria come from?
A tiny parasitic micro-organism called Plasmodium
How is malaria transmitted?
Through anopheles mosquitoes
What are the symptoms of malaria?
What is a prevention of malaria?
What are E.coli?
Natural bacteria that exist in your intestines
Why is E.coli dangerous?
They can get ingested into your stomach, where they are not supposed to be
What is cholera?
A bacteria that forces your body to release water
What are prevention s for water-borne bacteria?
Wash your fruit and vegetables before eating
Boil water before drinking
Cook meat thoroughly
What are preventions for getting sick?
Wash your hands with soap regularly
Wash fruits and vegetables
Boil water before drinking
Sneeze/cough into your elbow
Use gloves if you have to touch blood
What is a useful microorganism?
What is penicillin?
A fungus that kills bacteria
What do helpful micro organism do?
They can make certain foods and act as medicine
What kinds of food use bacteria?
How do we know what bacteria look like?
Sometimes have tails
How do you identify a virus?
Circular with spikes
How do identify a protist?
Has a spot
How can you see micro-organisms?
Only with a magnifying instrument
What are examples of magnifying instruments?
Hand lens or microscope
What does the word micro mean?
Where do micro-organisms occur?
When are you made aware of micro-organisms?
When food decays
When they make you sick
What is microbiology?
The study of micro-organisms
When did people find out that micro-organisms existed?
With the invention of the microscope
What did people find that micro organisms did?
Turned grape juice into wine
Turned milk into cheese
Caused bread to rise
Caused beer to ferment
What are viruses?
Microscopic particles that attack the healthy cells of living organisms
Why aren't viruses classified as living organisms?
They do not perform all of the processes of living
Why are viruses classified as micro-organisms?
What effect do viruses have on humans and other living organisms?
They make them sick
What is another name for a microbe?
What family of living organisms are bacteria classified as?
How do bacteria become multicellular?
They live in colonies
What are bad bacteria called?
What are protists?
Micro-organisms that belong to the family Protista
Where do protists live?
In any environment that contains water
What are examples of fungi?
What family are fungi classified in?
They are related to both animals and plants
Are fungi uni or multi cellular?
They can be either
How do fungi grow?
On their food source
How do fungi grow on their food sources?
By forming hyphae
What part of the fungus contains spores?
The sporangium contains spores
What do spores do?
They germinate into new bread mould bodies
What is the sporanglophore?
The part of a fungus that holds up the sporangium
What do rhizoids do?
They anchor the fungus to its food source
How do you work out the actual size of a micrograph?
Measure the length of the scale bar in mm
Measure the length of the organism in mm
Divide the length of the organism by the length of the scale bar
Multiply your answer by the length on the scale bar
Don't forget to write your unit in your answer
What causes diseases?
How will a doctor diagnose TB?
With an x-Ray
How is TB treated?
With a long course of antibiotics that can last for six months or more
What is the cure for AIDs?
There is no cure
How can people survive with AIDs?
By living a healthy lifestyle and preventing infection
By taking antiretroviral medicines
What does plasmodium do?
It travels to your liver and lays eggs
Why is malaria bad?
The parasites attack your red blood cells
What are water borne diseases?
Any diseases that can be caught by drinking contaminated water
What is the biggest cause of death in most third world countries?
How is diarrhoea and vomiting fatal?
They can make you dehydrated
Why are E.coli good to have in your large intestine?
They help to digest food
What are the symptoms of an E.coli caused illness?
How is cholera or E.coli caught?
It is normally through drinking water containing faecal matter
How is cholera or E.coli treated?
With antibiotics and rehydration
Why has the average person's life expectancy increased?
Because of vaccines and new medicines to treat diseases
Before the discovery of micro organisms, what did people believe caused illnesses?
The influence of the stars
Or a combination of these
What did people in the Victorian period believe in?
The miasmatic theory
What was the miasmatic theory?
Diseases were caused by inhaling air that had been exposed to corrupting matter
What was considered to be corrupting matter?
Air that had been exhaled by sick people
Any other rotting material
What were nosegays?
Bundles of herbs or flowers that people carried around with them
Why did people use nosegays?
They thought that they prevented miasmatic from entering their nostrils