Topic Three Flashcards Preview

Abi Biology 2015 > Topic Three > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic Three Deck (95):
1

What kinds of micro-organisms?

Protists
Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses

2

How many cells do micro-organisms usually have?

Unicellular-one cell

3

How does a virus reproduce?

It attacks the healthy cells of its host. Through this process the healthy cell is damaged

4

What is a group of bacteria called?

A colony

5

What do bacteria look like?

Rod-shaped
Circular
Spiral

6

What is the scientific name for rod shaped bacteria?

Plural-bacilli
Singular-bacillus

7

What is the scientific name for circular bacteria?

Plural-cocci
Singular-coccus

8

What is the scientific name for spiral bacteria?

Plural-spiralli
Singular-spirallus

9

What are examples of protists?

Amoeba
Red algae
Dinoflagellates
Diatoms
Slime molds

10

What are fungi?

Micro organisms that feed off of other organisms

11

How does mold grow?

On its food

12

What are hyphae?

The "roots" of fungi. They send out enzymes that digest the food below them, then they absorb the nutrients.

13

What is a micrograph?

A photo of something very small

14

How much is one nanometer?

0,000001 mm

15

How much is one micrometer?

0.001mm

16

What is the formula to work out the length of a micro organism?

The length of the organism, divided by the length of the scale bar, multiplied by the scale.

17

What is a longitudinal section?

The length of the object

18

What is a cross section?

The breadth of an object

19

What is a micro-organism?

A very small thing that performs the seven life processes

20

What can viruses cause?

Flu or cold

21

What does TB mean?

Tuberculosis

22

Where does tuberculosis come from?

Bacteria that usually infect the lungs

23

How is TB spread?

Through the air

24

What are the symptoms of TB?

Coughing
Coughing up blood
Fever
Night sweats
Weight loss

25

What is AIDS?

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

26

Where does AIDS come from?

Viruses that attack the white blood cells of the immune system

27

How is AIDS deadly?

Infected by another disease, but can't fight back

28

What are the symptoms of AIDS?

Fever
Aching muscles
Sore throat
Swollen glands

29

How is AIDS transmitted?

Sexual contact
Sharing hypodermic needles
Contact with infected blood
Transfer from mother to child during pregnancy and breastfeeding

30

Where does malaria come from?

A tiny parasitic micro-organism called Plasmodium

31

How is malaria transmitted?

Through anopheles mosquitoes

32

What are the symptoms of malaria?

High fever
Chills
Shaking
Sweating
Headaches
Muscle aches
Vomiting

33

What is a prevention of malaria?

Prophylactics

34

What are E.coli?

Natural bacteria that exist in your intestines

35

Why is E.coli dangerous?

They can get ingested into your stomach, where they are not supposed to be

36

What is cholera?

A bacteria that forces your body to release water

37

What are prevention s for water-borne bacteria?

Wash your fruit and vegetables before eating
Boil water before drinking
Cook meat thoroughly

38

What are preventions for getting sick?

Wash your hands with soap regularly
Wash fruits and vegetables
Boil water before drinking
Sneeze/cough into your elbow
Use gloves if you have to touch blood

39

What is a useful microorganism?

A decomposer

40

What is penicillin?

A fungus that kills bacteria

41

What do helpful micro organism do?

They can make certain foods and act as medicine

42

What kinds of food use bacteria?

Yoghurt
Wine
Beer
Cheese

43

How do we know what bacteria look like?

Rod shaped
Sometimes have tails

44

How do you identify a virus?

Circular with spikes

45

How do identify a protist?

Rod shaped
Has a spot

46

How can you see micro-organisms?

Only with a magnifying instrument

46

What are examples of magnifying instruments?

Hand lens or microscope

47

What does the word micro mean?

Very small

48

Where do micro-organisms occur?

Almost everywhere

49

When are you made aware of micro-organisms?

When food decays
When they make you sick

50

What is microbiology?

The study of micro-organisms

51

When did people find out that micro-organisms existed?

With the invention of the microscope

52

What did people find that micro organisms did?

Turned grape juice into wine
Turned milk into cheese
Caused bread to rise
Caused beer to ferment

53

What are viruses?

Microscopic particles that attack the healthy cells of living organisms

54

Why aren't viruses classified as living organisms?

They do not perform all of the processes of living

55

Why are viruses classified as micro-organisms?

They reproduce

56

What effect do viruses have on humans and other living organisms?

They make them sick

57

What is another name for a microbe?

A germ

58

What family of living organisms are bacteria classified as?

Monera

59

How do bacteria become multicellular?

They live in colonies

60

What are bad bacteria called?

Pathogens

61

What are protists?

Micro-organisms that belong to the family Protista

62

Where do protists live?

In any environment that contains water

63

What are examples of fungi?

Bread mold
Cheese mold
Mushrooms

64

What family are fungi classified in?

They are related to both animals and plants

65

Are fungi uni or multi cellular?

They can be either

66

How do fungi grow?

On their food source

67

How do fungi grow on their food sources?

By forming hyphae

68

What part of the fungus contains spores?

The sporangium contains spores

69

What do spores do?

They germinate into new bread mould bodies

70

What is the sporanglophore?

The part of a fungus that holds up the sporangium

71

What do rhizoids do?

They anchor the fungus to its food source

72

How do you work out the actual size of a micrograph?

Measure the length of the scale bar in mm
Measure the length of the organism in mm
Divide the length of the organism by the length of the scale bar
Multiply your answer by the length on the scale bar
Don't forget to write your unit in your answer

73

What causes diseases?

Micro organisms

74

How will a doctor diagnose TB?

With an x-Ray

75

How is TB treated?

With a long course of antibiotics that can last for six months or more

76

What is the cure for AIDs?

There is no cure

77

How can people survive with AIDs?

By living a healthy lifestyle and preventing infection
By taking antiretroviral medicines

78

What does plasmodium do?

It travels to your liver and lays eggs

79

Why is malaria bad?

The parasites attack your red blood cells

80

What are water borne diseases?

Any diseases that can be caught by drinking contaminated water

81

What is the biggest cause of death in most third world countries?

Diarrhoea

82

How is diarrhoea and vomiting fatal?

They can make you dehydrated

83

Why are E.coli good to have in your large intestine?

They help to digest food

84

What are the symptoms of an E.coli caused illness?

Severe cramps
Diarrhoea
Vomiting
Fever
Nausea

85

How is cholera or E.coli caught?

It is normally through drinking water containing faecal matter

86

How is cholera or E.coli treated?

With antibiotics and rehydration

87

Why has the average person's life expectancy increased?

Because of vaccines and new medicines to treat diseases

88

Before the discovery of micro organisms, what did people believe caused illnesses?

Witches
Demons
The gods
The influence of the stars
Or a combination of these

89

What did people in the Victorian period believe in?

The miasmatic theory

90

What was the miasmatic theory?

Diseases were caused by inhaling air that had been exposed to corrupting matter

91

What was considered to be corrupting matter?

Rotting corpses
Air that had been exhaled by sick people
Sewage
Any other rotting material

92

What were nosegays?

Bundles of herbs or flowers that people carried around with them

93

Why did people use nosegays?

They thought that they prevented miasmatic from entering their nostrils

94

What are miasmas?

Bad smells