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Flashcards in Tourism: Factors affecting tourism Deck (10):

factors affecting:




all tourist destinations --> significant/unqiue characteristics include: climate/natural features

sun and snow (for coastal activities/ skiing and alpine adventure)
- 3/5 top destinations- France, Italy, Spain
- Mediterranean climate (warm to hot summer/cool winter)
- abundant sunshine--> beach tourism most year round
- European Alps- best skiing (Switzerland)

Natural features:
- unique biophysical characteristics, tourist catch glimpse
- Himalayas, Grand Canyon, GBR
- many eco-tourism role--> attracted to great biodiversity, rainforests coral reefs
- recognition as World Heritage Status--> significant natural beauty/ distinctive landforms/ endangered species act as magnets for tourists


Biophysical deterrents to tourism:

biophysical factors may also force people away: reluctant to travel to those with natural disasters other inclement conditions



mass tourism not sustainable, eco-tourism evolved last 20yrs -> recognising negative aspects of mass t.
used to promote ecologically sustainable development focus in some destinations



source of foreign exchange, most countries-> biggest source, strongest performing sectors in global economy,
favourable exchange rate-> influence destination chosen.
major source of employment, accommodation, catering, transport, entertainment
economic conditions: can/do affect tourism, mulitplier effects through whole economy

as country more developed, structure of employment (agriculture- tertiary/service sector)
income increase - middle class develops: demand for tourist product (India, China)
first within own country/regional then further abroad


social (cultural):

aging popluations of western countries, increase life expectancy, affluence of populations--> continue to drive growth in tourism in future

Baby boomers (55-64yrs)
move into retirement villages, more leisure time: willing to spend retirement savings

smaller family sizes:
Aussie families smaller or no children (DINKS)
couples using increased disposable income- trips

pink tourism (gay/lesbian market)
fewer kids, more disposable income,
Sydney Mardis Gras attract 650 000 people --> $100 mil in spending

workplace changes:
longer working hours- shorter holidays
contract employment- no holiday
globalisation-more business trips
increase female pop- greater family wealth/ desire for holidays


(social) cultural:

demand for cultural experience while travelling growing trends
cultural attractions:(Colosseum, Louvre, Buckingham Palace)
religious pilgrimage (Vatican City, Mecca, Jerusalem)
ancient site (Pyramids, Machu Picchu)
indigenous tours (northern territory- Aboriginal tours)

travel may be positive/negative, traditional customs/way of life weakened/destroyed by tourism
host nations: resent tourists as outsiders



consumer choice:
motivation and decision making- shaped by tech
accommodation, trip activities done online (Trip Advisor) and travel experiences shared easily (photos) promote destinations

improvements impact nature/spatial distribution of tourism greatly
aircraft: faster, more fuel efficient, less polluting, carry more passengers
trains: Japan/Europe fast trains: popular means to travel, 250-300km/hr, efficient moving lots people
sea transport: cruise ships, fastest growing area of tourism industry (future directions note)
road infrastructure: motorways/freeway construction boomed after WWII encourage road trips- not efficient and reduced cost of others had impact



globalisation and growth in TNC's promoted industry- large companies dominate tourism sector
specialist niche operations: specific market needs (Milestone Hotel)

concentration of ownership:
horizontal integration (buying out competitors) and vertical integration (buying related sector in tourism industry) concentrated control, ownership and decision making in tourism
(Accor, Starwood Hotels, Six Continents- largest hotel groups in world--> own Ibis, Holiday Inn, Formule 1, Novotel etc.)
social/economic effects industry as a whole (Australia: dominated by Jetset/Travelworld, Flight centre, Harvey World travel)

Government and NGOs:
world travel organisation: affiliate body of UN: main role promote and develop trade with aim to: stimulate economic growth, job creation: incentive to protect environment, heritage, promote peace/understanding



world trade organisation:
encourage easier/fairer flow of goods/services inc tourism across international borders through General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS)
112 nations committed to free tourism market to foreign competition with GATS

world bank and international monetary fund:
international financial institutions that provide funds for less developed countries requiring loans and develop programs to repay debt. to recieve funding, (Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility PRGF) must agree to open up economy, integrate into global economy
tourism included, increase spendings repay debt

trade agreements and economic cooperation:
regional associations (Association of South East Asian Nations- ASEAN) improve relations/tourism between nations with common border crossings (Laos, Vietnam, Thailand) make crossing easier --> also constructing railway: Singapore --> Southern China via Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam

agreement policies:
government can influence tourism policies- promote
plans: infrastructure developments, favourable taxation regimes, relaxed border restrictions. political unrest/instability in nation constrain tourism
investigate 'Smart Traveller' website