Toxicology Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
0

Concerned with the deleterious effects of chemical and physical agents on all organisms

Toxicology

1

Deals with the chemicals found in the workplace

Occupational toxicology

2

Deals with the potentially deleterious impact of chemicals, present as pollutants of the environment to living organisms

Environmental toxicology

3

Concerned with the toxic effects of chemical and physical agents on living organisms especially in population and community within defined ecosystem

Ecotoxicology

4

Substance that occurs in the environment at least in part as a result of human activity in which has a deleterious effects on living organisms

Pollutants

5

The ability of a chemical agent to cause injury

Toxicity

6

The likelihood that injury will occur in a given situation or setting

Hazard

7

The only expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable effect arising from exposure to a chemical or physical agent

Risk

8

Three interacting components of ecotoxicology

Toxicants and poisons
Environment
Organisms

9

Routes of exposure

Industrial-inhalation
Atmospheric-inhalation
Pollutants of water and soil-oral ingestion

10

Single exposure occurring over 1-2 days

Acute

11

Long term exposure

Chronic

12

Environmental considerations

Degradability of the substance
Mobility through air, water and soil
Bioaccumulation
Biomagnification

13

Air pollutants

Carbon monoxide
Sulfur dioxide
Nitrogen oxides
Ozone

14

By product of incomplete combustion

CO

15

Generated by the combustion of sulfur containing fossil

SO2

16

Brownish irritant gas. Exposure to farmers

NO2

17

Bluish irritant gas occurs normally in the earth atmosphere.
Important absorbent of UV light

Ozone

18

Use as industrial solvents, degreasing agents and cleaning agents

Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon
-carbon tetrachloride
-chloroform
-trichloroethylene
-tetrachlorethylene

19

An intermediate in the synthesis of chemicals

Benzene

20

Aryl, carbocyclic or heterocyclic compunds containing chlorine substituents

Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide

21

Used in human and veterinary medicine

Organophosphorus insecticides

22

Inhibit acetylcholinesterase

Carbate insecticides

23

Insecticides derived from natural sources

Botanical insecticides

24

Herbicide used for destruction of weeds

Chlorophenoxy herbicides

25

Most important agent of bipyridyl herbicide

Paraquat

26

Drugs used to prevent or reverse the toxic effects of a heavy metal on an enzyme or other cellular target

Chelating agent

27

Oily, colorless liquid with a strong metacarpan like odor.
Single agent treatment of acute poisoning by arsenic and mercury

Dimercaprol

28

Treatment for poisoning by antimony, arsenic and lead. For the treatment of children with blood kead concentration greater that 45ug/dL

Succimer

29

White crystalline, derivative of penicillin.
For treatment of poisoning with copper

Penicillamine