Tracheobronchial tree - Gross anatomy and microscopic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tracheobronchial tree - Gross anatomy and microscopic Deck (29)
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1

At which vertebral level does the  trachea begin? 

C6

2

At what level does the trachea end? 

T5

3

What surrounding structurs of the trachea kept it open? 

Cricoid cartilages - C shaped rings 

4

What structures are these in the trachea? 

5

Trachealis muscle is found at the end of cricoid C shape rings. What type of muscle is Trachealis?

Smooth muscle

6

What type of epithelium lines the tracheal mucosa? 

Ciliated Pseudostratified columnar 

7

The epithelium of the trachea has columnar ciliated epithelial cells. What cellls in the epithelium produce mucus?

8

The respiratory mucosa is made up of the Epithelium and underlying lamina propria. What is the lamina propria? 

thin layer of areolar connective tissue that lies underneath the epithelium of the mucosa (the white line under the epithelium in photo) 

9

What other type of cells found in the epithelial layer of the trachea help generate the epithelial population?

Stem cells (basal stem cells) 

10

The combination of the sweeping movements by the ciliated epithelium and mucus from the goblet cells form the mucociliary escalactor. What is the function of the mucociliary escalator?

  • To trap inhaled particles and pathogens, moving them up the airways to be swallowed and destroyed 

11

Describe the contents of the respiratory submucosa 

  • Thick layer of connective tissue that surrounds the epithelium contains many glands 
  • Water secretions from the glands help humidify the inspired air 

12

The trachea branches into two bronchi, at a point called what?

The carina 

13

State the order of structures from trachea to alveolus 

Trachea

Primary Bronchi

Secondary Bronci

tertiary Bronci 

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles 

Respiratory bronchioles 

Alveolar duct 

Alveolar sac 

Alveolus 

14

What surface anatomical landmark is a good going to where the trachae biforcates? 

The sternal angle 

15

Describe the differences between the right left main bronchus 

Right: 

  • Wider, shorter, descends more vertically 

 

Left: 

- Longer 

16

Within the lung, the main (primary) bronchi, splits in lobar (secondary) bronchi. Each secondary bronchi supplies a lobe of the lung - therefore, how many secondary bronchi would you expect for the right and left lung? 

Right secondary bronchi - 3

Left secondary bronchi - 2

17

The lobar (secondary) bronchi branch into tertiary (segmental) bronci. Each of these supplies a BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMENT.  

In the simplest terms, what are bronchopulmonary segments

Just subdivisions of lung lobes that are separated by connective tissue. There are 10 segements in the right lung and 8 in the left. 

18

Like trachea, bronchi also have cartilage (cartilage STOPS at bronchioles). Describe how they are different from the tracheal cartilages, and what happens to the amount of smooth muscle as we go down the bronchi?

  • Still cartilage but becomes less frequent and in primary bronchi they are still C shaped, but by the tertiary bronchii, it is no longer circular and is just present as sporadic "plates" 
  • AS CARTILAGE BEGINS TO DECREASE, THE AMOUNT OF SMOOTH MUSCLE INCREASES 

19

The segmental (tertiary) bronchi go onto form Bronchioles. They do not contain any cartilage or mucus secreting. They have are dominated by SMOOTH MUSCLE. Given the presence of smooth  muscle, what is the likely function of this muscle?

  • Brochodilation (sympathetic)
  • Bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic) 

20

Describe the type of cells found in the epithelium found in bronchioles

  • In LARGER bronchioles, the columnar cells are CILIATED 
  • In SMALLER bronchioles, the columnar cells are NON-CILIATED 
  • NO GOBLET CELLS 
  • Have Club cells (also known as Clarssa cells) - which secrete SURFACTANT - prevents the airways sticking together 

21

Respiratpry bronchioles are connected to alveoli along regions known as what? 

Alveolar ducts 

22

What are the chambers called that contain many individual alveoli(alveolus)?

Alveolar Sacs 

23

What type of epithelium do alveoli have?

Siimple squamous 

24

What cells are the main cells involved in gas exchange in the alveoli? 

Type 1 Pneumocytes

 

25

What is the role of type 2 pneumocytes in alveoli? 

Produce a surfactant, which reduces surface tension in the alveoli, making it less likely for the alveolar walls to collapse. 

26

What is the immune cell found on the alveolar surfaces? 

  • Alveolar macrophages (also known as dust cells) 
  • Remove debris and pathogens 

27

The site of gas exchange occurs at the respiratory membrane of alveoli. What are the 3 layers of the respiratory membrane? 

  • Alveolar epithelium 
  • Endothelial endothelium 
  • And in between, the FUSED basement membranes of the alveolar and endothelium cells 

28

What is the typical disatnce of the respiratory membrane? What does this small 

0.1um to 0.5um - allows for rapid gas exchange 

29

Study the basic layers of the the mucous membrane