What are the components of the upper respiratory tract?
Nose, mouth, nasal cavities, Paranasal sinuses, Pharynx
The nose, mouth, nasal cavities, and pharynx all make up the upper respiratory pathway. State their function.
Mouth and nose - passageway for air
Nasal cavigy - filters, warms and moistens air
Pharynx - common passageway for air, food and liquid
The trachea, pleaural membranes, lungs, bronci and alveoil are all part of the lower respiratory tract. State each of their function
Trachea: Main conducting airway
Pleural membranes: There are two, one covers the lungs whilst another lines the chest cavity.
Lungs: organ of gas exchange
Bronci: Passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs
Alveoli: Sites of gas exchange
The upper respiratory system has an important role in filtering, warming and humidifying incoming air, protecting the lower respiratory system. What does it do to outgoing air?
Cools and dehumidifies it.
State the order of branching in the bronchial tree.
Primary > Secondary>Tertiary>Bronchioles>Terminal bronchioles> Respiratory bronchioles
Label these parts of the pharynx
Each lung is covered by a double membrane called the pleaura. What are these both called, and what is the name of the space that separates these two membranous layers?
Parietal cavity separates them
Describe the parietal pleura
Membrane that covers the internal surfaces of the internal cavity.
The parietal pleura can be divided into different regions according to the bits of the body it comes into contact with:
Each lung is surrounded by a pleural cavity. The two pleaural cavities are separated by what other thoracic cavity?
Describe the visceral pluera
Membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs, extending into the fisseues between the lobes.
Describe the parietal cavity, and state the functions of the serous fluid
A potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura. It contains pleural fluid.
Pleaural fluid functions:
- lubricates the surfaces of the pleurae, allowing them to slide over each other
- it also produces a surface tension, pulling the parietal and visceral layer together - this ensures as the thoax expands, the lung also expands and fills with air
The parietal pleaura is sensitive to pressure, pain, and temperature. What is it's innervation?
- Phrenic nerve
- Intercostal nerves
The visceral pleura is not sensitive to pain, temperature or touch. What is it's innervation?
- Vagus nerve
- Branches from the sympathetic chain
Together forms the pulmonary plexus
What is the blood supply for parietal pleura?
What is the blood supply for the visceral pleura?
The apex of the lung points in what direction?
How many lobes do each of the lungs have?
Right - 3
Label the lobes and fissues
Which lung is broader, and which lung is longer? Why?
Right lung is broader, since heart takes up more space meaning left is thinner
Left lung is broader, since the diaphragm is pushed up because up the underlying liver
What lung has the cardiac notch?
The lung root is a collection of structures that connects the mediastinal surface of tbe lung to the mediastinum via a ROOT. What are the contents of a root?
- A bronchus
- Pulmonary artery
- two pulmonary veins
- bronchial vessels
- pulmonary plexus of nerves
- lymphatic vessels.
The hilum serves as an attachement between the lung root and th lung. It is an area where anatomical structures enter and leave the lung. What anatomical side of the lung is the hilum found?
What is the blood supply to the lungs?
What is the venous supply to the lungs?
Describe the parasymathetic, sympathetic and visceral afferent supplies of the lungs
Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve - stimulate contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, and vasodilation of pulmonary vessels
Sympathetic: Derived from the sympathetic trunks - stimualte relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, and vasoconstriction of pulmonary vessels
Visceral afferent: Conduct pain impulses to the sensory ganglion of the vagus nerve