Basic overview of structures of respiratory system, outer lung anatomy and hilum, pluera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic overview of structures of respiratory system, outer lung anatomy and hilum, pluera Deck (30)
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1

What are the components of the upper respiratory tract?

Nose, mouth, nasal cavities, Paranasal sinuses, Pharynx 

2

The nose, mouth, nasal cavities, and pharynx all make up the upper respiratory pathway. State their function. 

Mouth and nose - passageway for air 

Nasal cavigy - filters, warms and moistens air 

Pharynx - common passageway for air, food and liquid 

3

The trachea, pleaural membranes, lungs, bronci and alveoil are all part of the lower respiratory tract. State each of their function 

Trachea: Main conducting airway 

Pleural membranes: There are two, one covers the lungs whilst another lines the chest cavity. 

Lungs: organ of gas exchange 

Bronci: Passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs 

Alveoli: Sites of gas exchange 

4

The upper respiratory system has an important role in filtering, warming and humidifying incoming air, protecting the lower respiratory system. What does it do to outgoing air?

Cools and dehumidifies it. 

5

State the order of branching in the bronchial tree. 

Primary > Secondary>Tertiary>Bronchioles>Terminal bronchioles> Respiratory bronchioles 

6

Label these parts of the pharynx 

7

Each lung is covered by a double membrane called the pleaura. What are these both called, and what is the name of the space that separates these two membranous layers? 

Outer: Parietal 

Inner: Visceral 

Parietal cavity separates them 

8

Describe the parietal pleura 

Membrane that covers the internal surfaces of the internal cavity. 

9

The parietal pleura can be divided into different regions according to the bits of the body it comes into contact with: 

Cervical

Costa

Mediastinal 

Diaphragmatic 

10

Each lung is surrounded by a pleural cavity. The two pleaural cavities are separated by what other thoracic cavity?

Mediastinum 

11

Describe the visceral pluera 

Membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs, extending into the fisseues between the lobes. 

12

Describe the parietal cavity, and state the functions of the serous fluid 

A potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura. It contains pleural fluid. 

Pleaural fluid functions: 

  • lubricates the surfaces of the pleurae, allowing them to slide over each other 
  • it also produces a surface tension, pulling the parietal and visceral layer together - this ensures as the thoax expands, the lung also expands and fills with air 

13

The parietal pleaura is sensitive to pressure, pain, and temperature. What is it's innervation?

  • Phrenic nerve 
  • Intercostal nerves 

14

The visceral pleura is not sensitive to pain, temperature or touch. What is it's innervation?

  • Vagus nerve 
  • Branches from the sympathetic chain 

Together forms the pulmonary plexus 

15

What is the blood supply for parietal pleura?

Intercostal arteries 

16

What is the blood supply for the visceral pleura?

Bronchial arteries 

17

The apex of the lung points in what direction?

Superiorly 

18

How many lobes do each of the lungs have? 

Right - 3 

Left -2 

19

Label the lobes and fissues 

20

Which lung is broader, and which lung is longer? Why? 

  • Right lung is broader, since heart takes up more space meaning left is thinner 
  • Left lung is broader, since the diaphragm is pushed up because up the underlying liver 

21

What lung has the cardiac notch?

Left

22

The lung root is a collection of structures that connects the mediastinal surface of tbe lung to the mediastinum via a ROOT. What are the contents of a root? 

  • A bronchus
  • Pulmonary artery 
  • two pulmonary veins 
  • bronchial vessels 
  • pulmonary plexus of nerves 
  • lymphatic vessels. 

23

The hilum serves as an attachement between the lung root and th lung. It is an area where anatomical structures enter and leave the lung. What anatomical side of the lung is the hilum found? 

Medial 

24

Label 

25

Label 

26

What is the blood supply to the lungs? 

Bronchial arteries 

27

28

What is the venous supply to the lungs?

Bronchial veins 

29

Describe the parasymathetic, sympathetic and visceral afferent supplies of the lungs

Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve - stimulate contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, and vasodilation of pulmonary vessels 

Sympathetic: Derived from the sympathetic trunks - stimualte relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, and vasoconstriction of pulmonary vessels 

Visceral afferent: Conduct pain impulses to the sensory ganglion of the vagus nerve 

 

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