Training And Development Days 26 27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Training And Development Days 26 27 Deck (136):
1

A planned, systematic effort to change the job-related KSs, attitudes, and/or behaviors of employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and job requirements

Training

2

Training can benefit the organization when it (2)

Is linked to organizational needs
It motivates employees

3

A process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs

Instructional design

4

An effective training program is designed to teach what

Skills and behaviors that will help the organization achieve its goals
(What it is designed to teach)

5

The process of evaluating he organization, individual employees, and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary

Needs assessment

6

This is used to specify a number of key features for the implementation (input) and evaluation (outcomes) of training programs

Needs assessment

7

The presence and comprehensiveness of a needs assessment is related to

The overall effectiveness of training

8

This provides the mechanism whereby the questions central to successful training programs can be answered

Needs assessment

9

This determines the appropriateness of training by evaluating the characteristics of the organization

Organization needs assessment, or analysis

10

Needs assessment takes into account (3)

The organizations strategy
Resources available for training (costs, time, and expertise required for training)
Management's support for training activities

11

A process of determining individuals' needs and readiness for training

Person analysis

12

This is critical when training need is recognized because of a performance proble

Person analysis

13

Before developing a training program, organizations must be sure that performance problems resulted from

A deficiency in knowledge or skill

14

The process of identifying and analyzing tasks that should be the focus of the training program

Task analysis

15

To carry out the task analysis, what are 4 conditions in which tasks are performed and analyzed

The equipment and environment of the job
Time constraints
Safety considerations
Performance standards

16

A combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training

Readiness for training

17

Necessary employee characteristics (readiness for training) (3)

Ability to learn the subject matter
Favorable attitudes toward the training
Motivation to learn

18

Necessary organization characteristics (readiness for training) (3)

Environment that encourages learning
Avoids interfering with training
Supportive culture

19

After conducting the various analyses, what needs to be developed

Training objectives

20

These provide input for the actual design of the training program(s) as well as the criteria that will be used to evaluate the success of training

Training objectives

21

Based on training objectives, what 4 questions does the planner answer

What topics the training will cover?
Who will provide the training?
What training methods to use?
How to evaluate the training?

22

Advantage of in-house instructors

Cost effective

23

Disadvantage of in-house instructors

Individuals with both the skill-specific knowledge and experience necessary to train others are not always available within the organization

24

Advantage of outsourced training

Firms that specialize in training may have more valid and effective training programs that could have been developed in-house
Especially true for more generic skills (teamwork)

25

Disadvantage of outsourced training

Costly and frequently requires employees to leave work for an extended period of time

26

Delivery methods categories (6)

Classroom
Computers
On-the-job
Simulations
Team
Others

27

The most widely used training method, this typically involves a trainer lecturing a group of trainees

Classroom instruction

28

This involves trainees at different locations using computers to view lectures, ask questions, and exchange ideas/documents

Distance learning

29

Advantage of distance learning

Less costly

30

Disadvantage of distance learning

May reduce interaction between trainer and audience

31

Involves receiving training via the internet or the organization's intranet and it offers tools and information for helping trainees improve performance

E-learning

32

Advantages of e-learning

Allows individual to go at their own pace and replay or repeat lectures and activities
Programs can customize content based on trainees' previous performance

33

An employee is shown how to perform a work task by a supervisor or co-worker, and then goes straight to doing that task

On-the-job training

34

Advantages of on-the job training

Training environment will closely resemble the environment where skills will be put into practice
Trainee is actively participating in the learning process

35

Disadvantages of on-the job training

Because learners do not have a chance to practice parts of their task in much detail, it is unlikely that they will develop an expert level of proficiency
Notorious for not producing a systematic or organized way of thinking about things
Any mistakes will directly impact the organization's productivity and quality of goods and services

36

These are more effective in producing positive work behaviors on the job than are training techniques that only include lecture and discussion

Simulations

37

Examples of simulations

Equipment simulators or mock ups of job tasks
Virtual reality, avatars? Strategic business simulations, case studies

38

Examples of team training

Cross training
Coordination training
Team leader training

39

Team members understand and practice each other's skills so they can step in and take another member's place

Cross training

40

Teaches the team how to share information and make decisions to maximize team performance

Coordination training

41

Teaches the skills necessary for effectively leading the organization's team

Team leader training

42

Participants observe other people demonstrating the desired behavior, then have the opportunity to practice themselves
Effective for simple tasks

Behavior modeling

43

Training in which participants learn concepts and apply them by simulating behaviors involved and analyzing the activity, connecting it with real-life situations

Experiential programs

44

Team building exercises like wall climbing and rafting to help build trust and cooperation among employees (type of ineffective experiential program)

Adventure learning

45

3 characteristics of effective training

Communicated learning objectives clearly
Presents information in distinctive and memorable ways
Helps trainees link the subject matter to their jobs

46

5 characteristics of well-implemented training programs

Trainees given a chance to practice what they learned
Trainees understand if they are succeeding or not
Helps people remember the content
Written material has appropriate readability
Prompt, focused feedback

47

Measuring results: internal criteria

Measure employee outcomes of training
Reactions, learning

48

Measuring results: external criteria

Measure impact of training on the job
Behavior, results

49

How do participants feel about the training program? (Attitudes, satisfaction, etc)

Reactions
(Internal criteria)

50

To what extent have trainees learned what was taught? (Testing KSs)

Learning
(Internal criteria)

51

What on-the-job changes have occurred due to the training? (Actual use of KSs)

Behavior
(External criteria)

52

What cost-related outcomes have resulted from training? (Profits, quality, customer satisfaction)

Results
(External criteria)

53

Indicates areas of hostility to the training or trainers
Almost no relationship between liking training and learning

Reactions

54

Indicates whether the information was understood by the trainees
Not strongly related to the use of material on the job

Learning

55

Indicates changes in behavior on the job ('transfer of training')
Cannot give accurate diagnostic information for how to improve training

Behavior

56

Shows change to organizational bottom line results
May be too far upstream to reveal the impact of successful training

Results

57

This deals with the acquisition of KSs and behaviors that improve employees' ability to meet changes in job requirements and demands

Employee development

58

Development prepares employees for

Future jobs and even those that may not yet exist

59

What implies learning that is not necessarily related to the employees current job?

Development

60

Most people change jobs about how many times during their life

About 7 times

61

Most people change careers how many times in their life

3-4 times

62

Collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, skills, etc.

Assessment
(Development)

63

Goal of this is to identify strengths and weaknesses (and corrective action for these weaknesses)

Assessments

64

Examples of assessments (6)

Assessment center
Performance appraisals
360-Degree feedback
Benchmarks
Myers-Briggs
Interests

65

Do Myers Briggs and interest inventories predict actual job performance?

No

66

Most employee development occurs through

Job experiences

67

The combination of relationships, problems, demands, tasks, and other features of an employee's jobs.

Job experiences

68

Examples include job enlargement, job rotation, transfers, pro/de-motion, externships, and sabbaticals

Job experiences

69

Temp jobs at other organizations

Externships

70

Through job experiences, managers learn

How to handle common challenges and prove themselves

71

Employees can develop skills and increase their knowledge about the organization and its customers by interacting with a more experienced member

Interpersonal relationships

72

Experiences, productive, senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (protege)

Mentor

73

Can be a peer or manager that helps develop an employee and provide feedback and reinforcement

Coach

74

Protection, sponsorship, providing challenging assignments, exposure, and visibility

Career support

75

A friend and a role model, providing positive regard and acceptance, and functioning as a sounding board

Psychological support

76

4 interpersonal development

Interpersonal relationships
Career support
Psychological support
Additional benefits

77

Development process (4 steps)

Data gathering
Feedback
Goal setting
Action planning & follow up

78

Data gathering (Criteria for success)

Focus on competencies needed for career success
Include a variety of measures

79

Feedback (criteria for success)

Maintain confidentiality
Focus on specific success factors, strengths, and improvement areas

80

Goal setting (criteria for success)

Involve management and coaches/mentors
Specify competencies and knowledge to be developed
Specify developmental methods

81

Action planning & follow up (criteria for success)

Involve management and coaches/mentors
Measure success and adjust plans as needed
Verify that pace of development is realistic

82

3 issues with development

Glass ceilings
Succession planning
Dysfunctional management

83

Established "old boys' network" may prevent women and minorities from reaching senior management positions

Glass ceilings

84

Organizations should create broad development plans to know who will likely move into key positions in the future

Succession planning

85

Often caused by promoting high performing specialists who do not possess managerial skills
Organizations should try to provide managerial training to these individuals and coaching by their manager

Dysfunctional management

86

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

87

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

88

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

89

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

90

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

91

Protean career

One that frequently changes based on changes in the person's interests, abilities, and values in the work environment

92

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

93

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

94

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

95

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

96

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

97

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

98

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

99

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

100

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

101

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

102

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

103

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

104

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

105

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

106

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

107

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

108

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

109

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

110

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

111

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

112

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

113

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

114

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

115

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

116

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

117

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

118

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

119

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

120

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

121

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

122

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

123

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

124

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

125

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

126

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

127

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

128

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

129

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

130

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

131

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training

132

Designing training step 1

Assess needs for training

133

Designing training step 2

Ensure readiness for training

134

Designing training step 3

Plan training program
-objectives
-trainers
-methods

135

Designing training step 4

Implement training program
-principles of learning
-transfer of training

136

Designing training step 5

Evaluate results of training