Flashcards in Transplant Anesthesia Deck (11)
What are the maximum ischemic times for the heart, liver, and kidneys?
Heart- 4-6 hours
Liver- 12-24 hours
Kidneys- up to 36 hours
T or F: Brain death is associated with hemodynamic instability, wide swings in hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and oxidant stress, all of which negatively impact donor organ function
T or F: Just after brain death, adrenergic surges can cause ischemia and ischemia–reperfusion injuries.
T or F: Studies of head trauma patients suggest that the onset of brain death is associated with a transient period of hypotension with increased cardiac index and tissue perfusion. During this period, vasoactive drugs administered to increase blood pressure can cause rapid circulatory deterioration.
True- This period precedes the autonomic storm associated with herniation of the brain and emphasizes the wide dynamic swings in blood chemistries and hemodynamics after brain death. The timing of therapies to support hemodynamics is difficult as catecholamine storm is often followed quickly by pituitary failure. Once pituitary failure ensues, hormone therapy may help stabilize donors hemodynamically and thereby extend the donor pool.
T or F: Recently, in a rare prospective trial, a lung-sparing ventilation strategy was shown to increase the lung donor pool. Patients ventilated with tidal volumes of 6 to 8 mL/kg body weight and 8 to 10 cm water (H2O) PEEP were more likely to be lung donors than patients managed with tidal volumes 10 to 15 mL/kg and 3 to 5 cm PEEP
T or F: The mainstay of donor management is maintenance of euvolemia; therefore, central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is standard. CVP is maintained at 6 to 12 mm Hg, and when pulmonary artery (PA) catheters are used to assess cardiac function, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is maintained at
T or F: high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES, 200/0.6) had a negative impact on long-term renal function in recipients of these donor grafts compared with low molecular weight (130/0.4) HES
T or F: Generally, packed cells are used to maintain hematocrit of 30%, and fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is used to maintain the international normalized ratio (INR)
What is antithymocyte globulin? When is it administered, and what are potential side effects?
Antithymocyte globulin is a polyclonal antibody immunosuppressive agent used to deplete T cells from the circulation. It also interacts with a wide variety of cell surface molecules involved in adhesion and cell trafficking and ischemia–reperfusion injury.
It has a long history of use in treating acute rejection and induction of immunosuppression, particularly in sensitized transplant recipients and in steroid- and calcineurin-sparing regimens.
- leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, fever, anaphylactic reaction, increased incidences of both CMV and Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute and severe serum sickness, a rare side effect of ATG administration, presenting as jaw pain, and is treated by stopping the drug, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroids.
- on administration, the most importnat side effect is hypotension, so administer slowly. Corticosteroid, diphenhydramine, slow infusion, and acetaminophen will help prevent the development of hypotension. Hypotension may develop regardless of central or peripheral administration.
Side effects of the following medications:
azathioprine- pancytopenia, cardiac arrest, airway edema
cyclosporine- increased risk of CAD, HTN, ishcemic vascular disease, and nephrotoxicity
OKT4A- fatigue/weakness/fever/childs, hypotension
rapamycin- increased infection risk, myelosuppression, and hyperlipidemia