Transport Of Gases Flashcards Preview

Waste & Gas exchange > Transport Of Gases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transport Of Gases Deck (18):
0

Purpose of respiratory system

To provide an efficient means of supplying body with oxygen and remove CO2

1

Esophagus

- muscular layer for food
- it squeezes food and pushes it

2

Trachea

Open tube made up of rings of cartilage (same as nose and ear)
- acts as a tube, air moving up and down because of changing pressure
- produces mucus that traps bacteria and dust inhaled

3

Nasal Cavity

Filters, moistens and warms the air which enters the pharynx

4

What does trachea and bronchi have in them

They have ciliated cells (small hairs) that sweep and trap bacteria and dust back up to the pharynx where it is swallowed

5

Alveoli

Provide a large SA for gas exchange to occur
1cell thick

6

Diaphragm

Essential in providing a negative pressure in the lung, so air can enter

7

Order of transports systems in body

Mouth, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, diaphragm

8

Lung ventilation requires

A suction pump system

9

How does lung ventilation work

Changes the pressure of air and volume of lungs

10

Inhalation

The diaphragm expands the lungs when breathing in
- thus increasing its volume
- lower density
- lower air pressure

11

Exhalation

- diaphragm rekaxes and decreases lung volume
- high density
-

12

Features of gas exchange surfaces

- large SA:V
- moist (gases dissolve in water and diffuse across membranes
- thin and permeable
- high concentration gradient on one side of the membrane

13

Alveoli function and structure

- Large SA:V
- diffusion barrier to gas exchange is very thin
- rich supply of blood vessels
- contains lots of gas for transfers

14

What prevents the alveoli from collapsing

1 air remains in the aveoli even after breathing out
2 a surfactant is present in the thin layer of fluid over the alveolar surface

15

How to transport OXYGEN

Haemoglobin enables the blood to carry 70 times more O2
- efficient supply and removal of oxygen maintains a high oxygen concertration gradient

16

How to transport CO2

It is produced using CELLULAR RESPIRATION
- 7% dissolves in plasma
-23% combines with Hb molecules
- 70% converted to Hydrogen carbonate ions in plasma
- it is transported to lungs, then diffused out into the alveoli and exhaled w

17

How to fishes breath

Fishes have gills or operculum
- water is taken in through the mouth and forced over the gills
- water is allowed t flow over each gill plae separately
- blood vessels run in the opposite direction to the flow of water in the gills
- this maintains a very high concertration gradient allowing dish to extract 80% of oxygen available in water