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Neurology- Cranial Nerves > Trigeminal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Trigeminal Deck (36)
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1

What base of skull foramina does CNV1 pass through?

Superior orbital fissure

2

What base of skull foramina does CNV2 pass through?

Foramen rotundum

3

What base of skull foramina does CNV3 pass through?

Foramen ovale

4

What type of information is carried on CNV1?

Sensory

5

What type of information is carried on CNV2?

Sensory

6

What type of information is carried on CNV3?

Sensory and motor

7

What are the sensory functions of CNV?

Somatosensation of the face, mouth, anterior 2/3rds of tongue, sinuses and supratentorial meninges / proprioception associated with chewing

8

CNV supplies the motor control to which muscles?

Muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric

9

Where does the trigeminal nerve connect to the CNS?

At the pons (laterally, midway between midbrain and medulla)

10

Once the trigeminal nerve has connected with the CNS at the pons, describe its intracranial path?

Travels inferior to the edge of the tentorium cerebelli between the posterior and middle cranial fossa

11

Describe the extracranial path of the sensory axons of CNV?

Course from the superficial and deep structures of the face to their respective cranial formina

12

Describe the extracranial path of the motor axons of CNV?

Course from the foramen ovale towards the skeletal muscle they supply

13

What are the specific regions of the face supplies by CNV1, V2 and V3?

V1 = ophthalmic, V2 = maxillary, V3 = mandibular

14

What are some areas of the face which are supplied by CNV1?

Upper eyelid, cornea, conjunctiva, skin of the root/bridge/tip of the nose

15

Which specific part of CNV is responsible for the afferent limb of the corneal reflex?

CNV1

16

What are some areas of the face which are supplied by CNV2?

Lower eyelid, maxilla, ala of the nose, upper lip

17

What are some areas of the face which are supplied by CNV3?

Skin over the mandible and TMJ

18

What is the sensory supply to the angle of the mandible?

C2, 3 - great auricular nerve

19

Where are trigeminal sensory cell bodies located? Where do their projections terminate?

In the trigeminal ganglion / the trigeminal nucleus

20

Where is the trigeminal sensory ganglion found?

In the middle cranial fossa

21

Describe the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve?

Forms a long column of neurones which stretch from the midbrain down to the upper two segments of the cervical spinal cord

22

Describe the function of the mesencephalic nucleus (part of the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve)?

Proprioception information from the muscles of mastication

23

Describe the function of the pontine trigeminal nucleus (part of the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve)?

Touch and vibration

24

Describe the function of the spinal nucleus (part of the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve)?

Pain and temperature

25

What is unusual about the mesencephalic nucleus (part of the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve)?

It is the only sensory nucleus within the CNS

26

What is the function of the ventral trigeminothalamic tract?

Passes the sensory fibres of CNV through the thalamus and into the cortex

27

The motor neurones of CNV originate where?

In the trigeminal motor nucleus

28

Describe the innervation of the LMNs of CNV?

They receive bilateral innervation from the UMNs

29

What are the three pairs of jaw closing muscles supplied by CNV3?

Masseter, temporalis and medial pterygoid

30

What is the one pair of jaw closing muscles supplied by CNV3?

Lateral pterygoid

31

What does the mylohyoid muscle do?

Opens the mouth for swallowing and speech

32

What does the anterior belly of digastric muscle do?

Also helps to open the mouth

33

What does the tensor veli palatini muscle do?

Tenses the palate during swallowing

34

What does the tensor tympani muscle do?

Tenses the tympanic membrane of the ear to reduce vibrations

35

How is the sensory function of CNV tested?

By asking the patient to close their eyes and touch their skin in each region - ask the patient to tell you when they can feel something and compare the two sides

36

How can the motor function of CNV be tested?

Palpate the strength of contraction of the masseter and temporalis muscles by asking the patient to clench their teeth / ask the patient to open their jaw against resistance