Flashcards in Trigger Points/ Tender Points Deck (51)
What is a trigger point?
- Hyperirritable locus within a taut band of skeletal muscle located in the muscular tissue or its associated fascia
What are the 2 types of trigger points?
- Active (Pain without palpation)
- Latent (Clinically silet, but restricts, weakens muscle, and predisposes it to acute attacks of pain)
Upon who is trigger point mapping based?
Is a Trigger Point a primary or secondary condition?
Can be either
What are 4 direct causes of trigger points?
- Acute overload (a specific event or movement)
- Overwork/ overuse fatigue
- Direct trauma
What are the 2 causes of overwork fatigue?
- Repetitive contractions
- Sustained contractions
What are 4 indirect causes of trigger points?
- Overloaded synergistic muscles from primary muscle dysfunction
- Visceral disease
- Arthritic joints
- Emotional distress
How much do trigger points vary?
- Extremely variable due to activity
- Latent can turn into active
How do TrPs limit the movement of muscle?
- Develop guarding habits that limit movement
What type of autonomic changes may appear in the presence of Trigger Points?
- Changes in proprioception
- Hair loss
What are the 6 clinical signs used to diagnose a trigger point?
- Weakness and restriction in the stretch of an affected muscle
- A palpable taut band in the affected muscle
- Severe focal tenderness to digital pressure
- Twitch response following snapping or dry needling
- Reproduction of pain
- Elimination of symptoms targeting specific muscle
What is the goal of trigger point therapy?
- Inactivate trigger point decreasing referred pain
What are 3 methods of trigger point treatment?
- Manual technique
- Needling w/ or w/o medicaiton
- Dry needling
How much pressure should be applied through digital palpation to assess trigger points?
- Approximately 4 kg
How many tender points need to be present for a diagnosis of fibromyalgia?
- 11 of 18 sites
What are the 18 sites of tender points?
- Bilateral at suboccipital muscle insertions
- Bilateral anterior aspects of the intertransverse spaces at C5 - C7
- Bilateral trapezius at midpoints and upper boarders
- Bilateral medial supraspinaltus
- Bilateral second rib at the 2nd costochondral junctions lateral to junctions of upper surfaces
- Bilaterally 2 cm distal to humeral epicondyles
- Bilateral outer quadrants of buttocks in anterior fold of muscle
- Bilateral greater trochanter near trochanteric prominence
- Bilateral medial fat pad proximal to the joint line of knee
Are tender or trigger points exclusively muscle?
- Trigger points
Who developed the counterstrain/ positional release method?
What is the theory behind positional release?
- Decreases sensitivity of the muscle spindle to stretch, which decreases the excitability of extrafusal muscle fibers
Does a trigger point or tender point illicit a local twitch response?
- Trigger points
Does a trigger point or tender point illicit a local tenderness on palpation?
Can a trigger point or tender point be singular?
Only a trigger point
Does a tender point or trigger point occur in specific locations?
Does a trigger point or tender point cause a specific referred pain pattern?
Does a trigger point or tender point increase the body's overall sensitivity to pain?
What is the referred pain pattern of the SCM?
- Occiput/ occipital headaches
- Frontal area/ frontal headaches
What are 3 autogenic symptoms of the SCM?
- Blurred vision
- Postural dizziness
What type of grip is used when performing TrP therapy on the SCM?
What should be avoided when performing TrP therapy on the SCM?
- The carotid artery and jugular vein