Flashcards in Trunk and Pelvis Deck (41):
What is protraction and retraction?
Protraction: The action of extending a part of the body.
Retraction: The action of drawing something back or back in.
What is the axial skeleton?
The central structures including the Skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx
What is the appendicular skeleton?
The shoulder girdle, and limbs. (anything that isn't [art of the axial skeleton)
How many vertebrae are there in each region?
5 sacral that are fused together
3 - 4 coccygeal vertebrae
When does the spine curve?
Spine starts as a C-shape which curves back as babies start to put their heads upright.
Spine then curves back at the lumbar region when standing occurs (between 11 - 15 months of age)
What are the important features of a vertebrae?
Vertebral body which carries most of the weight
Spinous process posteriorly
Vertebral foramen with spinal cord passing through
Transverse processes laterally
Superior and inferior articulating processes which form facet joints
What are the defining features of the cervical vertebrae of the spinal cord?
All the vertebrae except the very first and very last vertebrae are bifid.
Hole in the transverse process called the transverse foramen for passage of vertebral artery and vertebral veing coming and going from the head.
What is another name for C1?
What is another name for C2?
What is the projection of the axis through the vertebral foramen of the atlas called? What does it do?
The odontoid process, It acts as a pivot point for the rotation of C1 on C2.
What does the superior articulating process look like in C1 and how does it look different in C2?
In C1 it is bean shaped and designed to articulate with the head.
In C2 it is round shaped and articulates with C1.
What holds the odontoid process in place to prevent excess movement of the atlas?
How do thoracic vertebrae look different to cervical vertebrae?
Thoracic vertebrae contain a larger vertebral body
Thoracic vertebrae lack a bifid spinous process
Spinous process is angled downwards
Attachment point for the ribs are located between the body and the transverse process
What are the facets for ribs on the thoracic vertebrae called?
Superior and inferior demifacets. Each rib articulates with 2 vertebrae
What is the purpose of the inferior notch of thoracic vertebrae?
It forms the superior portion of the intervertebral foramen
What is the name of the articulation point of the transverse process' with ribs?
How do ribs connect to vertebrae?
T1 has single inferior demifacet that articulates with rib
T2 shares this rib with T1
T2 and T3, T3 and T4, T5 and T6, T6 and T7, T7 and T8, T8 and T9 are all sharing a rib
T9 only connects to a rib superiorly
T10, T11, and T12 all connect to individual ribs.
Where does the rib attach to vertebrae?
At the articular facets on the body
At the costotransverse facet
How are lumbar vertebrae different to thoracic vertebrae?
They have longer transverse processes (More room for muscle and ligament attachments)
What is the lamina of a vertebra?
The bone joining the spinous and transverse processes
What is the pedicle?
The bone joining the body to the transverse process
What is the clinical significance of the vertebral pedicle?
Common site of fracture
What are the kinds of movements that can be done by lumbar vertebrae?
Extension and flexion as well as lateral flexion. However not much room for rotation.
How are sacral vertebrae different to lumbar vertebrae?
They are all fused together to form a median column.
What is the clinical significance of the superior articular processes of the sacral vertebrae?
They are common sites of back pain.
Which of the ribs are "true" ribs? Why?
Ribs 1 - 8, because they make a direct connection to the sternum.
What are the notches on the manubrium called?
Suprasternal/jugular notch superiorly
Clavicular notches laterally
Which ribs have no costal cartilage?
11 and 12
What is the ligamentum nuchae?
Ligament that holds the head upright
What does the supraspinous ligament do?
Connects the spinous processes together posteriorly from C7 onwards to the sacrum (takes over from ligamentum nuchae)
What ligaments hold the spinal cord anteriorly and posteriorly?
Posterior and anterior longitudinal ligaments
Why is posterior longitudinal ligament hard to see?
Because it is located inside the intervertebral foramen.
What is the ligamentum flavum?
Ligament that connects the lamina of vertebrae posterior to the spinal cord
What does the radiate ligament do?
Holds the head of the rib to the vertebral body.
What are the 3 parts of the pelvis?
What is the iliac crest?
The bone of the outer part of the ilium that can be palpated on sides of the waist
What are the iliac spines called?
Anterior and posterior superior iliac spines
Anterior and posterior inferior iliac spines
What are the gluteal lines on the ilium important for?
Attachment of gluteal muscles.
Where are the gluteal lines located?
Anterior gluteal line is located in the body of the ilium
Posterior gluteal line is more vertical and located in posterior part of the ilium
Inferior gluteal line is located in the inferior part of the body of the ilium and is more horizontal.
Where is the greater sciatic notch located? What is its purpose?
Posterior part of the ilium formed by protrusion of the posterior inferior iliac spine.