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Microbiology 39 > Tuberculosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tuberculosis Deck (17):
1

Signs and Symptoms for Tuberculosis

Initial symptoms:
-Minor cough
-Mild fever

Later symptoms:
-Difficulty breathing
-Chest pain
-Wheezing
-Coughing up blood

2

Pathogen for Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

3

Pathogenesis for Tuberculosis

-Can remain viable for long periods
-In aerosol drops
-Due to protection of the mycolic acid in the cell wall

4

What are the three types of tuberculosis

-Primary tuberculosis-initial case
-Secondary tuberculosis-reestablished tuberculosis
-Disseminated tuberculosis- involving multiple systems

5

Primary Tuberculosis

-Infectious dose= 10 bacterial cells
-Bacteria multiply inside macrophages
-Escape leads to cell-mediated attack on bacteria

6

Primary Tuberculosis 2

-Tubercle formation in lungs
-Neutrophils release enzymes causing necrotic caseous lesions that heal by calcification
-T cell action seen in tuberculin reaction

7

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Infection outside of the lungs:

-Regional lymph nodes
-Kidneys (renal tuberculosis)
-Long bones
-Genital tract (genital -tuberculosis)
-Brain and meninges (tubercular meningitis)

8

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Infection outside of the lungs: 2

-Immunosuppressed patients -Young children
-Untreated tubercular meningitis has a 30 – 50% mortality rate.

9

Secondary (Reactivation) Tuberculosis

-Live bacteria remain dormant, then reactivate
-Chronic tuberculosis: tubercles expand
-Untreated secondary disease has 60% mortality rate

10

Secondary (Reactivation) Tuberculosis with severe symptoms develop: “consumption”

-Violent coughing w/ greenish or bloody sputum
-Low-grade fever
-Anorexia
-Weight loss
-Extreme fatigue
-Night sweats
-Chest pain

11

Transmission for Tuberculosis

-Droplets of respiratory mucus suspended in air
-Can survive for 8 months in fine aerosol particles

12

Susceptibility influenced for Tuberculosis

-Inadequate nutrition
-Debilitation of the immune system
-Poor access to medical care
-Lung damage
-Genetics

13

Epidemiology for Tuberculosis

Infection of poverty:
-1.3 million people died from tuberculosis in 2013
-60% of U.S. cases are among foreign-born persons
-People who work in nursing homes, hospitals, or jails are at higher risk.

14

Culture and Diagnosis for Tuberculosis

-Tuberculin testing:
-Mantoux Test
Chest X rays:(Generally used after a positive test)
-Culture
-Acid-fast staining
-PCR

15

Prevention for Tuberculosis

-Limiting exposure to infectious airborne particles
-Live attenuated vaccine (BCG

16

Treatment for Tuberculosis latent TB

-Rifampin and Rifapentine: 4 and 3 months
-Isoniazid: 9 months

17

Treatment for Tuberculosis active TB

-Rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide: 2 months
-Rifampin and isoniazid: either 4 or 7 months, depending on the case

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