Flashcards in TUDORS Y8 Deck (46):
What were the impacts of Henry VII in the UK?(GOOD)
-He was strict with Barons
-Had control over Barons
-Married Elizabeth of York to prevent conflict(female leader of rival family)
-Enforced the Law
-Had male Heirs so there was NO WAR for the throne.
What were the impacts of Henry VII in the UK? (BAD)
-He was unfair with Barons>SELFISH! [Made Barons Weaker]
-Civil war for throne (Battle of Bosworth). The war caused:
*Long time for new king to settle+control country.
*New king inexperienced + lack of power and authority.
*Huge number of deaths. Mainly young, productive men. They were the country’s future.
*After war , country still divided. Continuous tension. Obstacle for Henry.
Lack Of Control Lead To:
1. Barons out of control.
Why did Henry VIII divorce Catherine of Aragon?
She was incapable of giving him a son. She had several miscarriages=chances of giving a healthy boy were small. He wanted a boy to make sure the Tudor donaste survived. He had to change wife.
Name the 6 marriages of Henry VIII in order.
1. Catherine of Aragon
2. Ann Boleyn
3. Jane Seymour
4. Anne of Cleves
5. Catherine Howard
6. Catherine Parn.
Why did Henry VIII make himself head of the church in England?
He wanted power. He thought that priests in his country should obey the king (him) not the pope.
He was bankrupt. He wanted to be powerful in Europe. Desperately needed more money to continue Champains and wars in Europe. The church had a lot of money.
He wanted divorce and only the head of the church could give him a divorce.
What did Henry VIII do to control the church in England?
He announced that pope had no longer have any authority in England. All priests and moms had rato do what he said, not what the pope said.
He gave himself divorce and married the pregnant Ann Boleyn, hoping for boy.
Persecuted those who opposed him.
Closed all monasteries, taking gold&silver and land. Gave him enormous amounts of money. Monasteries turned into private houses or ruins.
Henry made himself head of church but not Protestant. He passed a law saying the church still had to hold catholic services and didn’t change inside of churches at all.
What did Henry VIII do to close down monasteries?
Sent inspectors to report state of monasteries and looked for excuses to close them down.
Inspector had to report:
Name of monks breaking rules. Particularly interested in the sex lives of monks and nuns.
Names of unhappy monks or nuns who wanted to leave their monastery.
Any superstitious practices, particularly if they involved holy relics.
Each monastery’s income and debts.
Instead of visiting every single monastery they...
Asked people living nearby.
Who bought the monasteries?
Rich people bought the valuable monastery land from Henry.
Not one functioning monastery in England .
a)Henry viii normal income was about...
b) From disolution of monasteries he received an extra of...
a) £500 000 a year
b) £140 000.
Henry VIII died in...
Henry VIII’s son, Edward VI was ...... years old when he became King.
He was 9 years old.
Edward’s advisers were...
Edwards advisers told him what do, think or say. They encouraged him to...
Make many changes to religion.
In six years, buildings, decorations, and services in churches across England...
These changes pleased the Protestant minority but upset the majority of English people.
a)Many people genuinely believed Protestan Way was...
B) they worried that changing the way they worshipped they would end up in hell.
Battle between catholics and Protestants was...
Far from over.
What is a revolution?
A) short definition
B) Long definition.
A) fundamental/ major change
B) period of time in history in which some major discoveries or events changes the people’s way of living. (eg. Industrial Revolution)
Types of revolutions:
Causes of French Revolution:
-Food shortages. Bread really expensive.
-Peasants pay huge taxes while rich and priests pay nothing. Unfair!
-King is advised by bad, hopeless advisers. They ran the country badly.
-Louis is a weak king. He spends all his time hunting.
-Taxes paid to the church are disgraceful.
-king married foreign woman (Austria). She spends a lot of money.
-Look at America and British ways of government.
-only king and nobles have power. Ordinary people should have a say in the way the country is run.
A)Was France rich in the 18th century?
i) goods produced in slave islands in the Caribbean . Sugar, coffee and cotton produced cheaply on large plantations worked by slaves. These products then sold to other European countries making a large profit.
ii) Marseille, Bordeaux and Toulon were important ports, with industries such as soap-making, leather-tanning, sugar refining. Rouen was the centre of woollen cloth trade and Lyon was centre for silk (seda).
A)Was Paris important in the 18th century?
B) where did people live?
A)It was the largest town (over 600 000 people)
B) only 11% of france population lived in towns. Most peopl lives in countryside and worked on land or in their own homes.
French society divided in three groups called “estates”. Power and wealth was in hands of a few.
Second estate: nobles
Third estate: middle class people/peasants and workers.
Which estate did the king belong to?
The king , Louis XVI was an absolute monarch. He ruled over everybody. His word was law.
What was an estate?
An estate was a very large group or class of people. It was really difficult for one person to move from one estate to another.
The first estate:
- made up by the clergy
-leaders of clergy, such as bishops, were all wealthy and lived like nobles.
-the rest of clergy lived no better than the ordinary people but they paid no tax
-tended to support Louis because of privileges they had. Paid no taxes
-400,000 people. 2%
-Made up by nobles
-Had some power
-in some parts of the country, nobles were not particularly rich.
-most nobles wealthy
-didn’t pay taxes
- some nobles thought that king and ministers were running the country badly.
- 150,000. 1%
-made up by Everybody else in France which is not noble or part of the clergy. No one had any say in the run of the country.
-Middle class (doctors, merchants,etc) quite wealthy but had NO power. payed taxes
-Peasants and workers paid heavy taxes.
-poor but some were reasonably comfortable.
Middle classes: 1 million :4%
Peasants: 22 million: 85%
Other workers: 2 million: 8%
TOTAL: 25 million: 97%
The slogans of the French Revolution were:
“French people would have no freedom while the king of France was an absolute monarch with complete power.” Famous writer Voltaire.
Used England as inspiration and as example.
“All people should have equal rights. I think it is even more important than freedom” Jean Jaqcues Rousseau
“People should stand up for other French people because they have, should and are supposed to be like brothers” The Marquis de Lafayette
Who paid tax?
The third estate
Heavy taxes for the peasants:
Taille: sort of income tax
Seigneurial (feudal) tax: paid to local landlord.
Corvée(work tax):few days a year, peasants had to work on the upkeep of local roads.
Tithe: a tax of 10% of all income, paid to the church.
Gabelle: tax on salt. Salt was important and necessary because it helped to preserve food.
Aide: tax on a bottle of wine.
Did women work?
Yes. They were paid less than men for doing the same thing. They were also expected to run the family home as well.
Year of Revolution?
There were three types of different tax...
Other (eg. church)
What was the cahier de doléances?
Lists of complaints. They were drawn up by people All over France. French people made their feelings known.
What was the Bastille?
It was a castle in Paris. Base of the king in the capital city.
Countdown to revolution:
-third estate start to speak up and fight for themselves .
-1 vote= each estate , not each person. So it was likely for the third estate to loose al the time and have no power.
- crisis worsened
- riots in many places of the country
Why did people in Paris attack the bastille?
Mainly because it was only way of getting weapons and ammunition.
It was a control center in the capital city, everything that happened in the country passed through Paris.
It was a way of showing power and strength to the king. Gave power to the third estate because 2nd and 1st estate ara afraid of a war.
Commander didn’t set free the prisoners.
What was the march to Versailles? Why did it happen?
Women of Paris set off to Versailles to protest directly to Louis. They did this because there was a serious food shortage in Paris.
What did the king do about the March to Versailles?
His family and him were forced to leave Versailles for good. When he reached Paris he realise that the 3rd estate had the power.