Flashcards in Tutorials Deck (60)
What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
How is prostate cancer different in African Americans?
What is considered to be a 'family history' of prostate cancer?
Close family member contracting it under 50 years old
How does prostate cancer present?
What investigations can be done to detect prostate cancer?
-USS and biopsy
What is the problem with PSA?
It is also raised in many other situations, e.g. Age, infection, stones, BPH
What is the problem with DRE?
Doesn't feel the transitional zones
How is a prostate biopsy carried out?
TRUS system -fires biopsy needles through perineum and into the prostate
How is prostate cancer treated if it has not metastasised?
Hormone control - testosterone reduction therapy (LH/FSH antagonists)
What is the problem with testosterone reduction therapy?
Can loose libido, become impotent, and get osteoporosis
What is the prognosis of prostate cancer?
Earlier presenting ones tend to be more aggressive, late presenting ones tend to be benign
Where does prostate cancer like to metastasise to?
Describe the difference between primary bone cancer and prostatic metastases to bone?
Bone cancer normally lowers bone density, but prostate metastasised cancer tends to form sclerotic bone metastases, leading to greater deposition of bone + white x-ray appearance
What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
Hereditary (BRCA 1/2, Li-Fraumeni)
What can increase oestrogen exposure?
Obesity post menopause
Geographically, where is breast cancer more common?
How does breast cancer present?
Abnormal screening result
When is breast cancer screening offered?
Between 50-70 years
What conditions might cause calcifications on mammography?
Normal breast tissue
What investigations follow a positive breast cancer screening?
Fine needle aspiration and cytology or needle biopsy
Invasive lobular carcinoma patients also get MRI scans to pick up any malignancies not otherwise detected
What feature on biopsy might indicate breast cancer?
Lack of myoepithelial cells
How is breast cancer staged?
How is breast cancer graded?
What receptors to early stage breast tumours tend to have?
What is the result of the presence of oestrogen receptors in a lot of early stage tumours?
Tamoxifen is a viable option
What receptor to late stage breast tumours tend to have?
What is the result of a lot of late stage tumours having HER2 receptors?
Herceptin is a good option
When is lymph node dissection given in breast cancer?
When cancer has been shown to spread beyond the axillary nodes
What feature to breast cancers that present before menopause tend to have?
Tend to lack HER-2 or oestrogen receptors, meaning no treatment options are really viable