Typical Lumbar Spine: L1-L4 Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy I - Exam 2 > Typical Lumbar Spine: L1-L4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Typical Lumbar Spine: L1-L4 Deck (109):
1

What is the generic size of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

transversely broad

2

What is the generic shape of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

reniform or kidney-shaped

3

What is the appearance of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the lateral view?

anterior height is greater than posterior height by a few millimeters

4

What characteristics of the L1-L4 vertebral body may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment? Be specific and complete as to the differences on a segment from each group.

- On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment.
- At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle, and lamina-pedicle region.
- In addition, the vertebral body of L5 is more wedge-shaped on lateral view with a much greater anterior height than posterior height.

5

What would be the direction of the lumbar curve based on osseous features?

anterior (lordotic)

6

What is the appearance of the intervertebral disc in the lumbar spine?

greater anterior height than posterior height

7

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

the vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height

8

What is the direction of the normal lumbar curve?

anterior (lordotic)

9

What is the effect of aging on the vertebral body of a lumbar vertebra?

- decrease in height
- increase in circumference

10

How many synovial joint surfaces are present at the typical lumbar vertebral body?

none

11

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

12

What is the joint classification for the anterior longitudinal lig.?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

13

What is the joint classification for the posterior longitudinal lig.?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

14

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

4

15

Identify the fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces on a typical lumbar vertebral body.

- superior and inferior anterior longitudinal lig. attachment sites
- superior and inferior posterior longitudinal lig. attachment sites

16

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

6

17

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

2

18

What joint classifications will be observed at the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

- cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
- fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

19

What muscles may attach to a typical lumbar vertebral body?

- psoas major
- psoas minor

20

What muscles may attach to the first lumbar vertebral body?

- psoas major
- psoas minor

21

What muscle may attach from the second down to the fourth lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major

22

Psoas minor will only attach to the vertebral body of which segments?

T12 and L1

23

What is the name given to lig. that attach the vertebral body to articular process?

transforaminal lig.

24

What are the types of transforaminal lig.?

- superior transforaminal
- middle transforaminal
- inferior transforaminal

25

What are the attachment sites of the superior transforaminal lig. at the L1-L2 intervertebral foramen?

- L1 vertebral body
- inferior articular process of L2

26

What are the attachment sites of the middle transforaminal lig. at the L1-L2 intervertebral foramen?

- intervertebral disc
- inferior articular process of L1

27

What are the attachment sites of the inferior transforaminal lig. at the L1-L2 intervertebral foramen?

- L2 vertebral body
- superior articular process of L1

28

What lig. attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

corporotransverse lig.

29

What corporotransverse lig. are identified?

- superior corporotransverse
- inferior corporotransverse

30

What are the attachment sites of the superior corporotransverse lig. at the L1-L2 intervertebral foramen?

- L1 vertebral body
- L1-L2 intervertebral disc
- transverse process of L2

31

What are the attachment sites of the inferior corporotransverse lig. at the L1-L2 intervertebral foramen?

- L2 vertebral body
- L2-L3 intervertebral disc
- transverse process of L2

32

What names identify lig. that attach the dura mater to the vertebral body or pedicle?

- Hofmann lig.
- meningeovertebral
- anterior dural
- Trolard's

33

What are the types of Hofmann lig.?

- anterior Hofmann
- posterior Hofmann
- lateral Hofmann
- proximal root sleeve

34

Hofmann lig. are identified in which regions along the vertebral column?

- cervical - upper thoracic
- lumbar

35

Cervical-upper thoracic Hofmann lig. will attach what structures together?

dura mater to segments above

36

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann lig.?

C6

37

What is the proposed function of the cervical-upper thoracic Hofmann lig.?

- resist caudal movement of the dural sac
- resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

38

Lumbar Hofmann lig. will attach what structures together?

dura mater to lower segmental levels

39

What is the proposed function of lumbar Hofmann lig.?

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

40

What is the proposed function of the proximal root sleeve?

resist displacement of the peripheral nerve system in the intervertebral foramen

41

What is the orientation of the pedicle of a typical lumbar?

posterior

42

The pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

to the upper third or half of the vertebral body

43

What surface feature is located at the upper margin of the pedicle?

superior vertebral notch

44

What surface feature is located at the lower margin of the pedicle?

inferior vertebral notch

45

Which indentation on the pedicle will be more prominent?

inferior vertebral notch

46

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the superior vertebral notch of L2?

L1 spinal nerve

47

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the inferior vertebral notch of L2?

L2 spinal nerve

48

What is the direction of projection of the lumbar lamina?

posteromedian

49

What is the description of the lumbar lamina?

- short from medial to lateral
- broad from superior to inferior
- thick from anterior to posterior

50

What lig. attaches to the lamina of a typical lumbar?

ligamentum flavum

51

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum attachment?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

52

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum attachment site on the lamina results in what feature?

para-articular process

53

What is the name given to the condition of overlap of the laminae?

shingling

54

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

- overlap of the laminae, shingling, diminishes
- overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

55

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical lumbar vertebra?

triangular

56

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical lumbars?

transverse

57

How does the size of the vertebral foramen differ along the spine?

cervicals > lumbars > thoracics

58

What part of the CNS is present in the lumbar spine?

the conus medullaris is typically present in the vertebral foramen of L1

59

What part of the PNS is present in the lumbar spine?

the cauda equina is typically present in the vertebral foramina of L2-L4

60

Beginning with the L1 transverse process, what is the generic direction and relative length of each succeeding lumbar transverse process?

Each TVP is directed straight lateral and increases in length from L1-L3. L4 then begins to decrease in length.

61

What is the distal modification of the TVP of typical lumbars?

transverse tubercle

62

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar TVP?

accessory process

63

Congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process results in what feature? What is it's frequency?

- styloid process
- 7%

64

What parts of the lumbar transverse are homologous to the cervical TVP parts?

- L transverse tubercle = C anterior tubercle
- L accessory process = C posterior tubercle
- L transverse process origin = C true transverse process
- L transverse process = C costal element

65

What osseous part of a cervical TVP is lacking at the lumbar TVP?

costotransverse bar

66

What lig. will attach to the lumbar accessory process?

mammillo-accessory lig.

67

What parts of a vertebra are attached via the mammillo-accessory lig.?

mammillary process and accessory process of the same segment

68

What was believed to the entrapped by the mammillo-accessory lig.?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve.

69

What is the joint classification of the mammillo-accessory lig.?

none since it attaches parts of the same vertebra

70

What muscles attach to the lumbar accessory process?

- longissimus thoracis
- intertransversarii

71

What lig. attaches the neck of the 12th rib to the TVP of L1?

lumbocostal lig.

72

What is the joint classification for the lumbocostal lig. and its attachment?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

73

What muscles may attach to the TVP of a typical lumbar vertebra?

- psoas major
- quadratus lumborum
- longissimus thoracis
- rotator brevis
- rotator longus
- intertransversarii

74

Which of the erector spinae muscles attach to the TVP of a typical lumbar?

longissimus

75

Which of the transversospinalis muscle groups attach to the typical lumbar TVP?

rotators

76

What lig. attach to the TVP of a typical lumbar vertebra?

- lumbocostal
- mammillo-accessory
- intertransverse

77

What joint classifications are present at the TVP of a typical lumbar?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

78

What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of a typical lumbar?

pars interarticularis

79

What is the name of the prominent linear elevation in the lumbar spine between superior and inferior articular processes?

pars interarticularis

80

What are the posterior elements of the vertebra?

- zygapophysis
- lamina
- spinous process

81

What are the anterior elements of the vertebra?

- vertebral body
- pedicle

82

What is the position of the pars interarticularis relative to the aophyseal regions of a typical lumbar?

lateral to the spinous process, medial to the TVP, in between the articular processes

83

What is characteristic of the L1-L4 articular processes?

The transverse diameter of superior articular processes of an L1-L4 segment will be greater than the transverse diameter of the inferior articular processes of that same segment.

84

What is the reported angulation of typical lumbar articular facets?

they lie in the vertical plane

85

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar superior articular facet?

- backward, upward, medial (BUM)
- typically concave

86

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar inferior articular facet?

- forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)
- significant convexity

87

What is the name given to the projection on the lumbar superior articular process?

mammillary process

88

What muscles will attach to lumbar superior articular processes?

- multifidis
- intertransversarii

89

What muscles will attach to the mammillary process?

- multifidis
- intertransversarii

90

What lig. will attach to the lumbar superior articular process and TVP?

mammillo-accessory

91

What additional lig. are said to attach to lumbar articular processes?

transforaminal lig.

92

What is the joint classification for the typical lumbar zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

93

How many synovial joints are present on a typical lumbar?

4

94

Identify the synovial joints present on a typical lumbar.

- two superior articular facets
- two inferior articular facets

95

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in children?

lies in the coronal plane

96

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in adults?

- lies in the sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4
- lies in the coronal plane for L4/L5 and L5/S1

97

What name is given to zygapophyses between vertebral couples that lie in the same plane?

joint symmetry

98

What names are given to the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other lies in the sagittal plane or position?

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

99

What is the usual condition for typical lumbar spinous processes?

they are non-bifid

100

What is the usual appearance of the typical lumbar spinous process?

rectangular with the long axis in the superior-inferior orientation

101

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

spinous tubercle

102

What are the names of the condition in which the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"

103

What muscles will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

- latissimus dorsi
- serratus posterior inferior
- iliocostalis lumborum
- longissimus thoracis
- spinalis thoracis
- multifidis
- rotator longus
- rotator brevis
- interspinalis

104

What muscles from the five layers of the true back are present in the lumbar spine?

- layer 1: latissimus dorsi
- layer 2: none
- layer 3: serratus posterior inferior
- layer 4: erector spinae
- layer 5: transversospinalis

105

Which is the only region of the spine where all erector spinae muscle groups will have an attachment to the spinous process?

lumbar spine

106

Which transversospinalis muscles will b present at the spinous process of a typical lumbar?

- multifidis
- rotators

107

Which transversospinalis muscle will be absent at the spinous process of a typical lumbar?

semispinalis

108

Which muscle attached to the spinous process of typical lumbar vertebrae would not be considered part of any layer of the true back?

interspinalis

109

What lig. will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

- interspinous
- supraspinous