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Flashcards in U3 AOS 2 Deck (77):
1

Learning

A relatively permanent change in knowledge or behaviour that occurs as a result of experience

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Neural plasticity

Brains ability to change structure and function in response to experience or damage
Enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences

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Long term potentiation

Long lasting strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons after repeated stimulation
Results in enhanced and more effective synaptic transmission
More neurotransmitters and more receptor sites

4

Long term depression

Long lasting weakening of synaptic connections which decrease synaptic efficiency
Decrease neurotransmitters and receptor sites

5

Similarities of neurohormones and neurotransmitter

Both chemical messengers produced by the body
Both are secreted at the terminal buttons

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Neurotransmitters difference

Are secreted into the synaptic gap a deliver messages to adjacent target cells
More rapid message

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Neurohormones difference

Secreted into the blood stream for transport to target cells
Messages travel more slowly

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Glutamate in synaptic plasticity

Promotes the growth and strengthening of synaptic connections
More often glutamate can excite an adjacent Neuron, more LTP
LTP is an enduring form of synaptic plasticity

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Adrenaline and consolidation of emotionally arousing memories

Adrenaline helps stimulate the amygdala
Amygdala regulates emotions such as fear and aggression
Involved in consolidation of emotional informational, especially fear

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Classical conditioning

Repeated association of two different stimuli to produce a naturally/involuntary response
Learner is passive

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Different parts of classical conditioning

Neutral Stimulus (NS)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)

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Before conditioning

NS produces no response
UCS produces UCR

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During conditioning (acquisition)

NS and UCS paired to produce UCR

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After conditioning

CS produces CR

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Classical conditioning: stimulus discrimination

Conditioned response only produced to conditioned stimulus

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Classical Conditioning: Stimulus Generalisation

Stimulus similar to original conditioned stimulus will produce a response similar to the conditioned response

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Classical Comditioning: Acquisition

Development of a CR through repeated association between UCS and NS

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Classical Conditioning: Extinction

Disappearance of a CR following a lack of pairing of the UCS and CS

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Classical Conditioning: Spontaneous Recovery

Following extinction and a rest period the CR reappears at the presentation of CS

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Operant conditioning

Learning process by which likelihood of a particular behaviour occurring is determined by the consequence of the behaviour
Learner is passive

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Three phases of operant conditioning

Antecedant
Behaviour
Consequence

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Reinforcement

Any stimulus that subsequently strengthens the likelihood of the response that it follows

Positive reinforcement: plus something good
Negative reinforcement: minus something bad

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Punishment

Delivery of an unpleasant stimulus following an undesirable response, reducing unwanted behaviour

Positive punishment: add something bad
Negative punishment (response cost): minus something good

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Operant conditioning: stimulus generalisation

Correct response made to another stimuli which is similar to stimuli where reinforcement is obtained

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Operant Comditioning: stimulus discrimination

Response to a stimuli where reinforcement is obtained but not for other stimuli

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Operant conditioning: spontaneous recovery

Response is shown after rest period in the absence of reinforcer

27

Observational Learning: Social Learning Theory

- emphasises the importance of the environment in which learning occurs
- observational learning involves crucial cognitive processes
- person does not simply see and reproduce
- sometimes what we learn remains latent
- produce it when we feel motivated

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5 stages of observational learning

Attention
Retention
Reproduction
Motivation
Reinforcement

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Attention

Must be paid to models behaviour and consequences
Cognitive

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Retention

Learner stores mental representations of behaviour
Cognitive

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Reproduction

Learner must have the physical and intellectual ability to convert representations into actions

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Motivation

Learner must want to imitate the learnt behaviour

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Reinforcement

A positive outcome means the learner is more likely to repeat the behaviour

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Sources of reinforcement

Model: model praises/punishes learner for imitating their behaviour
Third person: learner imitates model but praised/punished by another person
Personal: learner receives satisfying consequence for imitating models behaviour
Vicariously: viewing others being praised or punished

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Little Albert as an example of classical conditioning

NS- White Rat
UCS- Loud Noise
UCR- Crying at loud noise
CS- White Rat
CR- Cry at White rat

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Ethical implications of little Albert

- No harm principle: Albert suffered psychological harm that wasn't reversed
- Informed Consent/Voluntary Participation: Albert stolen from hospital without mothers consent
- debriefing: experimenters made mo attempt to extinguish fear little Albert acquired
- withdrawal rights: Albert not allowed to leave experimental situation

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Methods to retrieve information from memory

Recall
Recognition
Relearning
Reconstruction

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Recall

Supply/reproduce information that is stored in LTM, using few or no cues for assistance

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Types of recall

Cued: reproduce info but given cues or prompts to assist recall
Free: reproduce info from memory with no cues in any order
Serial: reproduce info without cues in specific order it was originally presented

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Recognition

Identifying previously learnt information from a list/group of incorrect alternatives

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Relearning

Learning info that has been previously learnt and stored in LTM as a means of assessing whether any info was retained from original learning

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Methods of retrieval from most sensitive to least sensitive

Relearning
Recognition
Recall: Cued
Free
Serial

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Saving Score

Measures the percentage of information retained from original learning

Equation: [(trials for original learning minus trials for relearning) divided by trials for original learning] x100

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Reconstruction

Combining stored information with other available information to form what is believed to be a more coherent/complete/accurate memory.

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Context Dependent Cues

Aid retrieval by recalling info in the same environment in which the information was learnt.
- physical landmarks, smells, sounds act as cues
- returning to appropriate physical environment is not always possible
- use visual imagery to 'recreate' the physical environment

46

State dependent cues

Associated with your internal physiological and or psychological state at the time memory was formed
- easier to access a memory when in the same internal environment as when it was learnt

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Maintenance rehearsal

- relies on the conscious recitation of information in a rote fashion
- easily affected by distractions which can displace info from STM
- every repetition provides an extra 20sec memory is held in STM

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Elaborative rehearsal

Linking new info in some meaningful way with info already in LTM or with other pieces of new info.
Memory is more memorable

49

Self reference effect

Ties in new info with your own personal understanding and experiences. Makes new info personal and meaningful to you

50

Serial position effect

The superior, immediate, free recall of items at the beginning of at the end of a list compared to those in the middle
Primacy effect
Recency effect

51

Brain Surgery: Henry Molaison

HM suffered from severe epilepsy, traditional treatment didn't work so he underwent brain surgery.
Medial temporal lobe from each hemisphere was removed (amygdala, hippocampus and cortical tissue)
Now suffered from anterograde amnesia

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Retrograde amnesia

Memory loss for events prior to brain damage/trauma
Can't access existing LTM but can form new ones

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Anterograde amnesia

Inability to encode and store new memories
Memories prior to brain damage are still intact
STM is affected and hence ability to encode LTM is compromised

54

Alzheimer's disease

Neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual widespread degeneration of brain neurons causing memory got decline in cognitive, social skills and personality changes

loss of neurons in hippocampus=memory loss and personality change

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Causes of Alzheimer's disease

- Amyloid Plaques: proteins that form among axon terminals and interfere with neural communication
- neurofibrillary tangles: abnormal build up of protein inside Neuron
- reduced acetylcholine: in areas of brain associated with learning, memory and intellectual fucntioning
- cortical shrinkage: damages areas involved in thinking, planning and memory

56

Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

- memory loss, especially declarative
- personality change due to frontal lobe shrinkage
- confusion and disorientation
- repetition

57

Eye witness testimony

- requires people who have viewed an event to give their personal account of the event
- can be influenced by leading questions and language used

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Lofters First Experiment: Speed

- 45 volunteers, watched car accidents, 5 different conditions, each condition had a different word to complete specific question
- "about how fast were the cars going when they__ each other?"
-smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted

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Results of lofters first experiment on speed

-indicated the wording of the question influenced the speed estimations given by participants
-a misinformation effect occurred: participants incorporated misleading info into their memory of event

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Lofters Leading Question Experiment: Glass

-participants viewed crash again
-3 groups, smashed/hit/control (not asked about speed of car)
-one week later, asked critical question 'did you see any broken glass?'
-THERE WAS NO BROKEN GLASS IN TH FILM

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Results of lofters leading question experiment

-participants recollection of seeing glass was influenced by how speed question was asked
-mixed memory of accident with new false info
-suffered source confusion: unable to distinguish real info from false info given after event

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Traditional model of recall

1. Original Experience
2. Integration of experience into LTM
3. Questions asked about original experience
4. Re-Creation of original experience
5. Response to question

63

Loftus Model of Recall

1. Original experience
2. Integration of experience into LTM
3. Integration of new info into memory of original experience
4. Questions asked about original experience
5. Recall of reconstructed memory with new info
6. Response to question

64

Capacity and duration of sensory, short and long term memory

Sensory: C- Relatively unlimited
D- 0.2-4 seconds
Short: C- 7 +/- 2 items
D- around 20secs
Long: C- relatively unlimited
D- relatively unlimited

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Sensory memory

Iconic: stores visual info in the form of an icon for less than half a second, just enough for encoding to begin. Visual info changes constantly we must deal with it quickly

Echoic: storage of acoustic info is temporary and remains as an echo for 3-4 seconds, long enough for sounds to be encoded and selected for attention, provides smooth, integrated and continuous auditory info

66

Short term memory

Holds info in awareness for a short period of time, long enough to be used for mental tasks

67

Displacement

Individual can only store a finite amount of info. For new info to be stored, another piece of info must leave

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Improving capacity: chunking

Grouping of seperate items of info into a larger, single item
Can be made up of numbers, words, letters, phrases
Can effectively increase STM normal storage capacity

69

Long Term memory

Holds info in semantic networks making it available for retrieval at a later time
Retrieve info by locating it in LTM and returning it to conscious awareness

70

Explicit memory

Involves memory with awareness and a deliberate attempt to retrieve info
Hippocampus

71

Declarative memory

Store for factual info such as names and dates and words
Semantic: knowledge about facts and concepts about world
Episodic: info about specific events or personal experience

72

implicit memory

Remembering involves unconscious or unintentional retrieval, without awareness
Amygdala

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Procedural memory

Beyond conscious control, automatic
Tend to not forget

74

Cerebral cortex

- processing STM
- memories are linked to other memories, creating meaning
- storage of explicit memories

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Amygdala

- processing emotional memories, especially fear
- retrieves explicit, declarative memories

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Hippocampus

- encodes explicit, declarative memories (consolidation)

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Cerebellum

- encodes implicit, procedural memories, (temporary storage)