U3 AOS1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in U3 AOS1 Deck (59):
1

Central NS

Receives information from peripheral nervous system, processes and then responds
Brain and spinal

2

Peripheral NS

Complete network of neutrons outside of the CNS
consist of glands, organs and muscles, carries messages to and from the CNS

3

Somatic NS

Network of neutrons within body that transmit information from the receptor sites on the sense organs to the CNS and carries information from CNS to muscles to control movement

4

Autonomic NS

Transmit motor messages from the brain to the body's internal organs and glands resulting in their involuntary activity
Operates independently of the brain

5

Sympathetic NS

Alter the activity levels of internal muscles, organs and glands to physically prepare our body for increased activity during high physical arousal

6

Fight Flight Freeze

Involuntary reaction resulting in a state of physiological readiness to deal with an acute stressor or immediate threat

7

Conscious Response

Voluntary, controlled by the cognitive processes of the brain

8

Unconscious Response

Involuntary (stomach contractions)

9

Spinal Reflex

- automatic process initiated by inter neurons in spinal cord rather than brain
- sensory message intercepted and split at spinal cord
- motor response generated and sent back to sensory site resulting in rapid response
- sensory message continues to brain and hence pain/effects noticeable only after reaction

10

Neuron

Basic building blocks of nervous system, specialised to communicate information around the body
Motor, inter and sensory

11

Dendrites

Receive messages from other cells

12

Soma

Cells life and support centre

13

Nucleus

Processes incoming information

14

Myelin Sheath

White fatty coating that covers axon of some neutrons to help speed up neural impulses and prevents interference with other neurons

15

Axon

Passes impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons

16

Terminal buttons/Axon Terminal

Form a junction with other cells
Initiates communication between two neurons across synapse
Release neurotransmitters to convey message to next Neuron

17

Neural communication

Is an electro chemicals process
Electrical when travelling along axon
Chemical at axon terminal through neurotransmitters

18

Neural communication in depth

-Axon potential reaches tip axon terminal pre syn Neuron, neurotransmitters released synaptic gap
-neurotransmitters stored in synaptic vesicles, action potential reaches axon terminal, vesicles move to membrane surface, release
-neurotransmitters carry chemical message across synapse to post syn neuron receptor sites
-receptor sites work in lock and key process

19

Lock and key process

Only the neurotransmitters that are the right chemical shape to fit into the receptors on the post synaptic neurons dendrites will be admitted into that Neuron

20

Excitatory effect

Increases the likelihood of the post synaptic Neuron firing (trigger an action potential)
Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter

21

Inhibitory effects

Decreases the likelihood of the post synaptic Neuron firing (triggering an action potential)
GABA (gama amino butyric acid) is the major inhibitory Neuron of the brain

22

Parkinson's disease

- Progressive neurodegenerative disease
- neurons of substantia Nigra begin degenerating
- substantia Nigra is located within the basal ganglia
- basal ganglia works with motor cortex to control voluntary movement, ensuring it is smooth and coordinated
- neurons of substantia Nigra responsible for release of dopamine
- dopamine is a neurotransmitter controlling motor information
- degeneration of neurons in SN results in less dopamine
- less dopamine results in nerves tending to fire in an uncontrollable manner, leading to difficulty controlling movement

23

Parkinson's motor symptoms

Bradykinesia: slowness of vol movement
Akinesia: lack of voluntary movement
Abnormal posture
Reduced coordination and balance
Tremors

24

Non motor symptoms of Parkinson's

Anosmia: decrease or loss of smell
Sleep disturbance and fatigue
Dementia
Anxiety and depression
Cognitive side effects: impaired memory, thinking slowness

25

Stressor

Any stimulus that produces stress
Physical: temperature
Psychological: break up
Internal: within the body (thoughts)
External: outside the body (environment)

26

Stress

A state of psychological and physiological arousal/tension
Produced by internal and external forces
Perceived to challenge or exceed a persons ability/resources to cope

27

Eustress

Positive psychological response to a stressor, when stress is beneficial or desirable
Feeling: enthusiastic, motivated, excited

28

Distress

Negative psychological response to a stressor, when stress is undesirable
Feeling: angry, nervous, anxious

29

Types of stressors

Daily pressure
Life events
Acculturative
Major
Catastrophe

30

Daily pressure

Irritating, frustrating, distressing demands that typically characterise everyday transactions with the environment
(Homework)

31

Life events

Often involves changes and strain and create demands to which people must adjust
(Giving birth)

32

Acculturative

Stress people experience in trying to adapt to a new culture
(Migration)

33

Major

An event that is extraordinarily stressful or disturbing for almost everyone who experiences it
(Death)

34

Catastrophe

Sudden, unpredictable, large scale events that nearly everyone appraises as threatening
(Natural disaster)

35

Freeze Response

Staying still or silent to avoid detection
-muscles don't function properly, known as tonic immobility
-enhances survival by avoiding detection till an opportunity to escape arises
-proposed that both sympathetic and parasympathetic are both in high state of arousal

36

Cortisol

-Stress hormone, energises body, increasing energy supply and enhancing metabolism in long term
-produced in adrenal glands, act upon liver to secrete glucose into blood for muscles to use as energy
-Has anti inflammatory effect by blocking activity of white blood cells that contribute to inflammation
-suppresses immune system (immunosuppresant) activity to divert energy to body's stress combating efforts, may increase vulnerability to viral and bacterial infection

36

Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Biological Model

Stage 1: Alarm Reaction, Shock and Countershock
Stage 2: Resistance
Stage 3: Exhaustion

37

Stage 1: Alarm Reaction: Shock

Person/animal first becomes aware of the stressor and the body goes into a temporary state of distress or fright

38

Stage 1: Alarm Reaction: Countershock

Sympathetic NS activates the muscles, organs and glands to increase body's resistance to stressor

39

Stage 2: Resistance

-body's ability to tackle stressor rises above normal
-all unnecessary physiological processes shut down
-blood glucose, cortisol and adrenaline circulate at elevated levels
-immune system suppressed: vulnerable to viral/bacterial infection

40

Stage 3: Exhaustion

-resources to resist stress deplete, resistance to stress falls below normal level
-signs of wear and tear evident
-physiological defences break down, greatly increased vulnerability to serious or life threatening diseases (ulcers, acne)

41

Strengths of GAS

-measures a predictable pattern that can be measured in individuals
-tracks a biological pattern in different types of stress

42

Limitations of GAS

-research conducted on rats, difficult to generalise
-does not account for individual differences or psychological factors

43

Chronic stress

Prolonged physiological arousal in response to a persistent stressor,
negative effect on health and wellbeing

44

Acute stressor

Brief but intense physiological arousal in response to an immediate perceived stressor
Normally no negative effect

45

Lazarus and Folkmans Transaction Model of Stress and Coping

Stress involves a transaction between the individual and environment
Coping will depend on the appraisal of the situation by the individual and their ability to cope

46

Primary Appraisal

Evaluation of the significance of a stressor/event
Harm/Loss: some type of damage has already been done
Threat: may be future harm or loss
Challenge: opp for personal growth or possible positive outcome
Neutral/irrelevant/benign: little or no importance and therefore no stress

47

Secondary Appraisal

An assessment of people's coping resources and options
Appraisal is made on more of a conscious level
Reappraisal: appraisal that follows earlier appraisal to the same stressor and modifies it

48

Coping

Process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external stressors that are appraised as taxing or stressful

49

Problem focused coping

Looks at the causes of the stressor from a practical perspective and works out ways to manage or change the problems/stressful situation
(Pros vs Cons, taking control, information seeking)
Used when we perceive some control over stressor

50

Emotion focused coping

Trying to reduce the negative emotional feelings associated with the stressor
(Meditation, relaxation, physical exercise)
Used when perceive to have little or no control over stressor

51

Strengths of Transaction model

-emphasise active role individuals have in stress as opposed to passive role in GAS
-emphasis the personal and individual nature of cognitive appraisal, helps explain difference in responses by individuals to same stressor

52

Limitations of transaction model

-subjective nature, variability, and complexity of individual responses means less reliable
-primary and secondary appraisal can occur simultaneously
-did not account for cultural, social or environmental factors

53

Approach strategies

Focusing affective, behavioural and cognitive towards stressor
May involve encountering, attending to or acknowledging stressor
Can be both emotion and problem based copying

54

Avoidance strategies

Focus ABC's away from stressor
May include denial, repression, distraction, etc

55

Context specific effectiveness

A good fit between coping strategy used and the stressful situation
Factors to consider: physical environment, stressor and individual

56

Coping flexibility

Ability to effectively modify coping behaviours according to stressor
Discontinue ineffective coping strategies (evaluate coping)
Produce and implement alternative coping strategy (adaptive coping)

57

Context Specific Effectiveness + Coping Flexibility

Equals no stress

58

Physical exercise

Releases endorphins (chemicals that promote a feeling of wellbeing)
Provides an avenue for people to expel built up tension or stress
Uses up stress hormones which reduces stress levels