U4 AOS1 (Sleep) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in U4 AOS1 (Sleep) Deck (46):
1

Sleep as an ASC

A regular ASC that typically occurs spontaneously and characterised by a loss of conscious awareness and is naturally occurring

2

Characteristics of sleep as an ASC

-lower level of awareness: very little awareness of external environment
-fewer content limitations: relinquish conscious control of thoughts
-controlled/automatic processes: performing other tasks generally impossible, excluding sleep walking
-percep/cog distortions: attention to sensory stimuli lowered and thoughts more organised and unrealistic
-emotional awareness: increased or decreased causing nightmares or dreams
-less self control: May snore, drool, grind teeth, sleep talk
-distorted time orientation: can't predict how long you have slept for without clock

3

Circadian Rhythm

-biological cycle with an approx 24hr duration
-it is not a sleep cycle alone
-superchiasmatic nucleus: regulates sleep wake cycle located in hippocampus. Analyses strength of light and stimulates pineal gland to release melatonin

4

Ultradian Rhythms

- biological rhythm that occurs within less than 24hrs
-sleep portion of sleep wake cycle is ultradian
-90min cycle where REM and nREM is altered

5

Proportion of REM and nREM

80% nREM
20% REM

6

REM Sleep

-period of sleep where eyeballs move rapidly under closed eyelids
-brain is very active during REM sleep (beta waves)
-often referred to as paradoxical sleep

7

NREM 1

- some slow rolling eye movements
- Hypnic jerks
- very light sleep and very brief

8

NREM 2

- Decrease HR/body movement/temp/blood pressure
-breathing becomes more regular
-rolling eye movements stop

9

NREM 3

-moderately deep sleep
-difficult to wake and likely to be disorientated when woken
-continued decrease in bodily functions
-continued relaxation of muscles

10

NREM 4

-deepest stage of sleep
-very difficult to wake
-sleep inertia experienced when woken

11

What is the restorative theory?

-sleep allows body to recharge, recover from physiological/psychological work and allows growth processes
-activates growth hormones, increases immunity, increases alertness, enhances mood, consolidates memory

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Restorative effects of nREM

Restores the body

13

Restorative effects of REM

Restores the mind (cognitive/psychological processes)

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Support for Restorative Theory

-marathon runners have greater amounts of nREM
-growth hormones are released during nREM
-nREM sleep improves immunity of body against illness
-REM improves memory consolidation
-REM improves alertness

15

Criticisms for Restorative Theory

-if sleep is restorative then it is counter intuitive to have the mind so active in this time
-would be assumed that those who do little exercise sleep less but this is not the case
-those bed ridden experience same proportion of nREM sleep despite not needing significant body restoration

16

Evolutionary Theory

Survival is the main purpose of sleep
- need to find food (cows sleep limited due to small energy from grazing)
-conserve energy (bears hibernate when food sources are scarce to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure)
-avoid predators (mice sleep to avoid predators)

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Support for Evolutionary Theory

-vulnerability to predators: mice
-need to find food: cows
-conserve energy: Bears

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Criticism of Evolutionary Theory

-theory shows why sleep is important but not why it's a MUST
-loss of awareness during sleep makes animals vulnerable to predators

19

Patterns of one nights sleep

-as each cycle progresses, deepness of sleep decreases
-periods of REM sleep increase

20

Sleep as an Adolescent

-time of melatonin release occurs 1-2hrs later than normal
-individual feels sleepy later
-changes the timings of major sleep episodes
-known as a sleep wake cycle shift

21

Melatonin

Hormone responsible for inducing sleep that is released from the pineal gland

22

Sleep in Shift Work

-artificial light allows human's to utilise more hours in day
-individuals exposed to excessive night time light and alter sleep wake schedule
-asynchrony between circadian sleep systems
-risks: include safety hazards and extensive health problems ranging from mood disorders to cancer

23

Shift Work Symptoms

- at least one month of complaints of excessive sleepiness and insomnia in relation to work schedule falling during during time of habitual sleep

24

Shift Work Disorders

- associated with poor performance
- cardiovascular/gastrointestinal/reproductive problems
- accidents
- illness
- depression
- bright light therapy and avoidance of light at wrong times of day can resync schedule

25

Jet Lag

- caused by misalignment of circadian rhythm with destination clock time
- symptoms: sleepiness, insomnia, fatigue, gastrointestinal problem
- easier to stay up and delay sleep rather than sleep earlier (WEST IS BEST)
- lack of sleep due to jet lag will produce effects of sleep deprivation

26

Partial sleep deprivation

inadequate sleep in either quality or quantity

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Partial Sleep deprivation: Affective Functions

- amplified emotional response
- confusion and irritability
- feelings of sadness
- feelings of fatigue
- mood disturbances

28

Partial Sleep Deprivation: Behavioural Functioning

- problems performing tasks (slowed performance, clumsiness)
- especially simple monotonous tasks and ones requiring attention or concentration

29

Partial Sleep Deprivation: Cognitive Functioning

- difficulties paying attention and concentrating
- difficulty thinking and reasoning and poor decision making

30

Physiological effects of partial sleep deprivation

- slower physical reflexes
- droopy eyelids
- heightened sensitivity to pain
- lower energy levels
- headaches

31

Dysomnia

- Sleep disorders that produce difficulty initiating, maintaining and/or timing sleep
- Sleep Onset Insomnia

32

Sleep onset insomnia

-sleep disorder involving persistent difficulty falling asleep at usual sleep time
-can disrupt the sleep wake cycle and its regulation
-asynchrony between sleep wake cycle and external environment

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Complaints of Sleep Onset Insomnia

- Sleep onset occurring much later than desired
- sleep is non restorative
- total sleep less than desired

34

Parasomnia

Sleep disorder characterised by occurrence of inappropriate psychological and/or physiological activity during sleep or sleep-to-wake transitions
- Sleep Walking

35

Sleep Walking

- sleep walking occurs in stages 3/4 nREM sleep
- sufferers usually perform routine techniques
- not dangerous to wake sleep
- if woken may experience sleep inertia

36

Sleep inertia

Physiological state of impaired cognitive and sensory motor performance that is present immediately after awakening

37

What is cognitive behavioural therapy

Improving the way people think, feel and behave

38

CBT-I (CBT for Insomnia)

Aims to improve sleep habits/behaviours by identifying and changing thoughts and behaviours affecting ability to allow person to sleep or sleep well

39

Steps 1 and 2 of CBT-I

1. identify underlying causes contributing to inability to sleep (sleep diary/journal)
2. take steps towards getting better sleep

40

Methods to Improve Sleep

- stimulus control
- sleep restriction
- relaxation training
- cognitive therapy
- sleep hygiene training

41

Stimulus control

- Break associations between sleep environment and wakefulness
- teach individual to not participate in activities incompatible with sleep
- stay in bedroom only to sleep/when sleep (classical conditioning)

42

Sleep restriction

-Strict schedule of bedtimes and rising times
-restrict time in bed to that of sleep time
-increase homeostatic sleep drive via partial sleep deprivation

43

Relation training

Recognise and control muscular tension through exercise instructions

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Cognitive therapy

Identify, challenge and replace beliefs and fears regarding sleep or loss of sleep with realistic expectations regarding sleep and daytime function

45

Sleep hygiene

Learn impacts of lifestyle habits on sleep (hw in bed, blue light of phone, temperature, comfort, exercise)

46

Bright light therapy

-light important for entraining (synchronising with external rhythm) human circadian rhythms
-bright light (not ordinary room light) capable of suppressing nocturnal melatonin secretion in humans