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Biology Honors Semester 2 Final Exam > U3P1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in U3P1 Deck (30)
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1

each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in molecules of

DNA

2

primary function of DNA

store and transmit genetic information, transcribed and translated into proteins

3

DNA polymerase's role in DNA replication

add new nucleotides to form a complementary strand of DNA

4

mRNA

messenger (transcribes segments of DNA code)

5

DNA replication base pairing rules

at, cg

6

tRNA

transfer (transfers amino acids to ribosome during translation)

7

rRNA

ribosomal (makes up ribosome structure)

8

compare and contrast RNA and DNA

DNA: double stranded, thymine base, keeps going
RNA: single stranded, uracil base, one gene
Both: CA&G backbone covalent bonded, hydrogen bonds

9

base pairing rules for transcription and translation

au, cg

10

tRNA anticodons for this mRNA: UAU GGC UAU

AUA CCG AUA

11

function of RNA polymerase

enzyme that transcribes DNA to build mRNA

12

codon

each nucleotide triplet in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid

13

process of transcription

1. occurs in nucleus 2. RNA polymerase binds to promoter 3. RNA polymerase reads DNA bases, nucleotides added to build mRNA strand 4. RNA polymerase reaches stop codon and enzyme deatches

14

three possible things resulting from error in DNA replication

genetic variation, mutation, cancer

15

Wilkins and Franklin

their x-ray diffraction photographs suggested that DNA molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled double helix

16

inversion mutation

section of DNA reversed

17

result of point mutation

one nucleotide changed

18

error rate for DNA replication

1 in billion nucleotides

19

chromatin

fine strands of DNA wrapped around protein (histones)

20

chromatid

one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to other copy by single centromere

21

chromosome

DNA coils into these during cell division, humans have 46

22

uracil

adenine pairs with this instead of thymine during transcription on mRNA

23

splicing

removes introns from pre RNA

24

amino acids

building blocks of proteins

25

each cell in an organism

possesses a complete set of DNA

26

gene

segment of DNA that codes for proteins which make your traits

27

DNA replication is said to be semi conservative

because each newly formed strand has one new strand and one original

28

sugar and phosphate groups

backbone of DNA molecule made up of this

29

can skin cancer be passed on

no, skin cancer in somatic cells

30

mRNA ready for translation contains

exons