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Flashcards in Uk Landscapes Deck (18):

What is relief?

The height above sea level


The upper course-

A steep gradient
A v shaped valley
Narrow and shallow
Lots of waterfalls so there can be gorge walking or jumping or white water rafting
The velocity is large


The middle course-

Gentle gradient
Wider and flatter
The river is wide and deep
They make good flood plains
The main process of erosion is transportation
The velocity is middle


The lower course-

Very wide and flat
Has large sediment load
The least incline
A low velocity
Used for sailing


What is abrasion (erosion)-

Stones carry in the water and hit the banks of the rivers dislodging particles


What is attrition (erosion)-

Particles bashing into one another in the flow of the river


What is hydraulic action (erosion)-

The force of the water on the base of the river


Solution (erosion)

Limestone rock slowly dissolving in mildly acidic water


Traction (transportation)-

Heavy rocks and boulder being rolled across the river bed
Needs fastest velocity


What is saltation (transportation)-

Very small particles of sand or clay being carried in the water


What is solution (transportation)-

Material dissolved in water, it is invisible and does not colour the water
Needs slowest velocity


How is a waterfall made?

1. Bands of hard rock ( limestone) over soft rock (sandstone)
2. Softer rock erodes creating a depression in the ground
3. This depression gets bigger and headward erosion starts to occur creating an overhang
4. The overhang eventually collapses
5. The collapsed overhang creates rocks in the plunge pool


How are ox- bow lakes made?

The water flows around barriers such as large boulders
The sand is deposited to create a beach where the water is slow moving
The water is diverted and starts eroding he side of the river to create a river cliff which has very fast moving water
The old river beach starts to grow vegetation and destroy the river so it diverts even more tragically
During times do floods, the neck of the meander breaks through
Deposition starts to occur because the water isn’t flowing round the bends
Overtime the oxbow lake dries up by evaporation


What is the fastest bit of the river called?

The Thalweg


What are the impacts of flooding?

Less income from tourists
Spreading of illness- contamination
No communication
No transport
Home lost so insurance companies under stress
More fertile land
Lower population
People drowning
Hospitals fuller


What is discharge?

Measures in cumecs (cubic meters per second)
Cross section area * velocity
The amount of water flowing in the river measured


What is hard engineering?

When man made structures are put in to stop erosion

May effect natural habitat

Adds to tourist
More reliable
Will stay there for long time


Soft engineering-

Involves working with natural river processes to stop erosion

Not as affective
‘Do nothing’

Not an eyesore
Does not destroy habitats
Less expensive