UK's Physical Landscape Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UK's Physical Landscape Deck (18):

What are the three main types of rock?

Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic


How are Sedimentary rocks formed?

When small particles are eroded, transported and deposited in a layer/remains of plants and animals


Give two examples of sedimentary rocks:

Chalk and Limestone


How are Igneous rocks formed?

When volcanic activity causes magma or lava to cool, forming rocks made of crystals that are usually hard.


Give two examples of Igneous rocks:

Granite and Marble


How are metamorphic rocks formed?

When already existing rocks have been changed by extreme heat or pressure. They usually consist of layers made of strong crystals.


Give two examples of metamorphic rocks:

slate and schist


What caused the current UK landscape?

Volcanic activity and tectonic processes because we used to be closer to plate boundaries. This caused faults and folds in the rocks.


What is the distribution of rock in the UK?

Upland areas - Igneous and metamorphic - Scotland, South Wales and the Lake District.
Lowland areas - Sedimentary - less resistant to erosion - Southeast England and the North and South Downs


What does high relief mean?

Visible above the earth


Two benefits of farming on a landscape:

- Income generated supports athe local community + provides jobs
- The formation of field barriers and hedgerows has provided wildlife corridors for bats.


Two disadvantages of farming on a landscape:

- Decline in chalk grassland due to use of chemicals in farming
- A decline of traditional practices such as extensive sheep grazing has lead to scrub encroachment on remaining chalk grassland.


What is a wildlife corridor?

A link to wildlife habitat, normally native vegetation, which joins two or more, larger areas of similar wildlife habitats


What is Scrub encroachment?

The gradual invasion of bushes due to lack of management.


A benefit of forestry:

Provides a habitat for a range of species


A cost of forestry:

Biodiversity may fall due to overgrowth of certain trees such as hazel and chestnut.


Define a coppice

A woodland where trees and shrubs are cut back every few years


What 4 landscape characteristics attracted settlements?

- River meander loops made good defensive locations
- Natural harbours were sites for fishing villages
- Shallow points of rivers were used as fords
- Springs gave people reliable freshwater