Flashcards in Unit 1 5018 Deck (63):
Skinner’s book, Verbal Behavior, may accurately be described as containing
Conceptual analysis but no research or teaching techniques
Skinner defines verbal behavior as behavior that
Is reinforced through the mediation of others
What antecedent conditions evoke verbal behavior
-Verbal behavior by someone other than the speaker
-The speaker experiencing a state of deprivation or aversive stimulation
-Some non-verbal stimulus in the speaker’s environment
In Skinner’s analysis of language, the term, social reinforcement is sometimes referred to as education. Skinner’s uses the term education in this way based on his analysis that the verbal community:
Enlists new members by teaching correct verbal responses
This verbal operant is not necessarily under the control of any specific antecedent stimulus in the immediate environment?
Tom sits next to his son Matt at the baseball game and Matt is eating a hotdog. Tom looks at Matt and says, “hot dog”, and Matt hands the hotdog to Tom, who happily takes a bite. Tom saying, “hot dog” to Matt is a(n)
To teach the language of emotions to a learner, the teacher
-Identify observable behaviors the learner will likely exhibit when experiencing a specific emotion
-Label the emotion when the learner exhibits operationalized observable responses characteristic of that emotion
-Assist the learner to tact private events
According to Skinner, an autoclitic is behavior which is
Based upon or depends upon other verbal behavior
According to Dr. Bondy, protocols change in the PECS system according to
An analysis of pure and multiply controlled verbal operants
What approach to communication teaches students to exchange pictures for those things they want?
Which of the following statements is true: Teaching someone to initiate verbal behavior
Is key to an individual producing verbal behavior that does not become prompt dependent
The pyramid approach to education is a way to:
Organize and prioritize strategies to teach students effectively
Functional activities, powerful reinforcers, functional communication, and contextually inappropriate behaviors are all considered to be _______ elements of the pyramid approach to education.
What are some elements of the pyramid approach to education?
PECS is considered a form of functional communication approach because it:
Requires an interaction with a listener
All of the following are advantages of PECS:
-Based on a functional analysis of language
-Encourages initiation in communication
-Requires an interaction with others
Teaching students to communicate with PECS typically requires:
X = A communicative partner
Y = A physical prompter
Z = A reinforcer
Rob is hired to work with Jon, a non-verbal child with developmental disabilities. Rob asks Jon’s mother to hold a small pretzel in front of Jon. When Jon reaches for the pretzel, Rob prompts Jon to get a picture, reach towards his mother, and release the picture to gain access to the pretzel. On subsequent trials, Rob only prompts Jon to get the picture and reach towards his mother. Soon after, he only prompts Jon to get the picture. Jon begins to follow these steps independently by the end of the session. Rob is using ___ to teach Jon to ___.
Backward chaining; Initiate communication
What is the goal of phase II of learning to communicate with PECS?
Increase spontaneity and range
Maria has already taught Bart to initiate communication with PECS. Her goal now is to teach Bart to travel longer distance towards communicative partners and/or to retrieve PECS. To do this, she gradually moves away from him and waits for him to initiate communication without prompts. What phase of PECS training is Maria following with Bart?
-Increasing spontaneity and range
Simple discrimination is taught in which phase of PECS training?
Which of these satisfies the requirements of Phase IIIA of PECS training? Mike loves salty items, but dislikes sweets. Liana should present Mike with a picture of potato chips and a picture of
Liana presents Mike with a picture of one of his favorite comic books, and a picture of a mascara brush, in which he has never shown an interest. When Mike selects one of the pictures, Liana gives him the pictured item. When he selects the picture of the mascara brush, and then rejects the actual mascara brush, Liana prompts him to touch the picture of the comic book. As soon as he touches it, she provides brief verbal praise for selecting a picture, and waits as he hands her the picture independently. At this point, she presents him with the comic book. Which phase of PECS training does this scenario exemplify?
When the learner points to the non-preferred or neutral item during simple discrimination training, the simplest correct teacher response is to
Give the non-preferred item to the student.
In the 4th step of the 4-step error correction procedure, the teacher prompts and obtains a correct response from the learner. Thus the learner has engaged in at least one incorrect response and one correct response during this 4-step sequence. In terms of data collection, how many trials does this represent?
Always only one trial (incorrect)
If the learner tends to play with any item or picture they are presented, an effective alternative strategy for early trials in teaching discrimination in the presence of two pictures is to use
A blank card as the distractor
Phase IV of PECS training is known as
Before teaching the use of attributes in making requests, it is MOST important that the student
Correctly discriminates the attribute
When teaching attributes, we teach where to place the picture, and also teach:
Discrimination between variations of specific attributes.
Facts about Phase 5 of PECS training?
-Mastery of this phase can lead into the “commenting” phase
-This is the very first phase where the student should be asked, “What do you want?”
- This is the phase known as the “What do you want?” phase
When teaching commenting, the PECS teacher should provide _________, contingent on a student making a correct comment (usually regarding a stimulus).
Social reinforcement (such as praise)other than access to the item itself
Dr. Bondy discussed the Schreibman and Stahmer (2013) study, comparing test subject acquisition of words when using Pivotal Response Training versus words acquired using PECS. Their results indicated that:
There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of words acquired
Which of the following is a common misconception about PECS?
Any use of pictures constitutes a form of PECS
What is Dr. Bondy’s critique of categorizing verbal behavior as either topography-based or selection-based?
The verbal behavioral analysis of the response unit does not require the distinction
The book, Verbal Behavior focuses on
Providing an analytical tool related to language
Skinner’s use of the term, “verbal”, focuses on
Language in general
Operants may be accurately defined as:
Behaviors that are defined by their impact upon the environment
Making smoke signals
can all represent?
In referring to consequential operations related to language, Skinner sometimes uses the term “education” to represent
Which of the following verbal operants is likely to be most difficult to learn for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is based on a ___ analysis of language
When a student is taught to mand primarily under the control of such questions as “what do you want” or “pick something you would like”, which of the following is a potential problem? The student…
Will be less likely to learn to initiate language over time
What is the goal of the pyramid approach to education as described by Dr. Bondy?
Use the methods of science to develop effective educational strategies
A key characteristic of functional communication is that …
It requires an interaction with a “listener” to mediate reinforcement
Dr. Bondy states that the first goal of communication is to teach students to:
Approach others to initiate communication
Jayne is teaching her sister Mary to request preferred items and activities. Using PECS to teach her sister, Jayne uses a 3 step sequence, as follows: (1) Pick-up a PEC card, (2) reach towards a communication partner, and (3) release the picture. She uses one picture at a time to establish each of the early responses in Mary’s repertoire, and fades her prompt from step 3, then step 2 and finally from step 1. Jayne is teaching her sister:
To initiate communication
What is necessary to teach spontaneous communication with PECS?
X = Increase distance to communicative partners and materials
Z = Fade-out prompts quickly
The goal of increasing spontaneity and range is to teach students to travel:
Y = To a communicative partner
Z = To get a picture from book
Walter has been teaching Maggie to communicate with PECS. Since Maggie is already initiating communication, Walter asks Scott, a fellow BCaBA, to stop prompting Maggie and begins increasing the distance she has to travel to exchange a picture for preferred items and activities. Walter is implementing the following phase of PECS training:
Increasing spontaneity and range
The goal in Phase III-A of PECS training is for the learner to discriminate between pictures of
Desired items and undesired items
In the 4-step error correction procedure, step 3 is “Switch”, which means switching the
Focus: have the child do something else
In Phase IIIA of the PECS procedure, when an error (incorrect learner response) is corrected by a prompt (use of prompt hierarchy until the correct response is evoked), how many trials are recorded on the data sheet?
One trial (incorrect response)
When using large pictures vs. small pictures for PECS discrimination training, one must
Have a range of sizes for the pictures, in order to fade to the actual sizes that will be used.
In Phase IV of PECS Training, the PECS book adds…
A sentence Strip
If the student moves a picture of a preferred item to the sentence strip before handing it to the communicative partner, in which phase of PECS would this FIRST occur?
Phase IV- Building Sentences
Teaching attributes occurs after Phase _____ of PECS training, and is a way to increase the student’s _____.
When teaching attributes, it is important to
Vary the attributes as we teach
In PECS training, the learner is FIRST presented with the question, “What do you want” during which broad phase?
To promote spontaneity during PECS training, the teacher should ask the question, “What do you want?” _______________.
During some trials, balanced by many unprompted manding trials during phase 5 and on
The goal of Phase VI is to have the learner engage in
During Phase 6 of PECS training, one goal is for the learner to discriminate between the teacher’s question, “What do you see?” and
The teacher’s question, “What do you want?”
Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of PECS?
Use of PECS may have a secondary effect of helping to reduce problem behavior