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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (31):
1

Which of the following is an example of a continuous schedule of reinforcement?

FR1

2

Which of the following best defines a ratio schedule of reinforcement?

Reinforcement is provided following a pre-specified number of responses

3

Which of the following best defines an interval schedule of reinforcement?

Reinforcement is provided for the first response that follows some amount of time

4

Which of the following best defines a response independent schedule of reinforcement?

Deliver stimuli known in other contexts to be reinforcers solely on the basis of time, independent of responding

5

Which of the following best defines differential reinforcement of low-rate behavior (DRL)?

t s without response, then 1 response

6

Which of the following best defines differential reinforcement of other behavior DRO?

T s without a response

7

Which of the following best defines a skill deficit?

Task materials and relevant instructions do not occasion predetermined level of performance in absence of prompts

8

Which of the following best defines a performance deficit?

The skill is intact, but the person is unmotivated to respond under appropriate stimulus conditions

9

Which of the following patterns of responding following supplemental reinforcement for correct responding suggest a performance deficit?

Responding very rapidly increases

10

Which of the following best defines a shaping?

Some property of responding is gradually changed by differentially reinforcing successive approximations to target behavior

11

In shaping, infrequent reinforcer delivery can result in which of the following?

Decrease or extinguish responding

12

In a lag 5 reinforcement schedule, the current response is reinforced if:

It differs from the last 5 preceding responses along the specified dimension responses along the specified dimension

13

In what order are prompts provided in least-to-most prompting?

Verbal, gestural, physical guidance

14

Reinforcing only unprompted correct responses may lead to which of the following?

Infrequent reinforcers

15

What is the ultimate goal of prompting?

Promote independent responding

16

Under what conditions is independent responding likely to be more rapidly acquired or increase more reliably?

Reinforce unprompted responses only

17

Which of the following best describes a possible intrinsic reward?

The music that comes from playing an instrument

18

According to the over justification hypothesis, reinforcement contingencies (___ rewards) lead to decrements in enjoyment )___ rewards) and thus result in decrease in engagement

Extrinsic; intrinsic

19

All of the following may account for what appears to be lessened intrinsic motivation,

Satiation, contrast effects, learned helplessness

20

Under what conditions do overjustification effects appear to be more pronounced

When behavior already occurs at a high level

21

Which of the following reinforcer assessments may mask differences in relative reinforcer efficacy?

single-operant arrangement

22

Which of the following is the dependent variable used for concurrent-schedule reinforcer assessments?

relative response allocation across available alternatives

23

Which of the following is the dependent variable used for progressive ratio reinforcer assessments?

Last completed schedule requirement

24

According to the Law of Demand, all else being equal... as unit price ___ demand (consumption) ____ and vice versa.

increases; decreases

25

Which of the following type of preference assessment is generally least effortful?

Indirect

26

According to Graff and Karsten (2012) which preference assessment method was most commonly used across all respondents?

Informal observation

27

According to Cte et al. (2007), which of the following best describes the outcomes of the comparisons of teacher and SPA ranking?

Negative correlation in most cases (5/9)

28

Which of the following best descries how stimuli are presented in the multiple stimulus preference assessments?

Present all items in the array simulataneously

29

Selected items are not returned to the array in which type of preference assessment method?

Multiple stimulus without replacement

30

Which of the following preference assessment methods may be most prone to false positives?

single-item/ approach

31

Which of the following preference assessment methods may be more sensitive to relative preferences and allows one to include a large number of stimuli?

parid stimulus