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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (42):
1

Monophony (monophonic)

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Gregorian chant

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Mass

The Mass is the most important service in the Roman church

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Ordinary: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei

Parts of the Mass with invariable words (but many possible melodies)
Kyrie, a threefold musical invocation of the Greek words Kyrie eleison and Christe eleison (Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy), derived from Byzantine practices.
Gloria (Greater Doxology) is a formula of praise to God and plea for mercy.
On Sundays and feast days, the Credo, a statement of beliefs, comes after the sermon.
The Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy): The text begins with the angelic chorus of praise from Isaiah 6:3.
The Agnus Dei (Lamb of God). Sung by the choir. Adapted from a litany

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Trouvère

poet-composers who wrote in Old French in the northern region

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Strophic

A song or poem that has several verses with the same tunes.

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Polyphony (polyphonic)

Voices sing together in independent parts, flourished

8

Organum

The addition of one or more voices to an existing chant.

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Tenor

The lower voice that holds the principal melody. It moves more slowly than the upper voice.

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Norte Dame

Musicians who associated with this place developed a more ornate style of organum in the late twelfth century.

11

Motet

1400-1450:Polyphonic do works with one or more texted voice added to a pre-existing tenor, which is set in a modal rhythm.
1450: any setting of liturgical text, whether the original melody was used or not.
1500s: any polyphonic Latin-texted piece.
Sometimes also applied to music using texts in other languages.

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Cantus Firmus

The tenor became this after ca. 1270.

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Are Nova

Bother duple and triple division of note values possible for the first time.
Comes from the final words of a treatise attributed to de Vitry: "this completes the ... Of Magister Phillipe Vintry"

14

Isorhythm

The tenor is laid out in segments of indents all rhythm.

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Machaut

The leading composer of the French Ars Nova.
First composer to compile his complete works and to discuss his working method.

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Chanson

Treble-dominated songs.
Polyphonic songs.
In formes fixes.

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Madrigal (14th century)

Song for 2 or 3 voices without instrumental accompaniment.
All voices sing the same text.
Each stanza set to the same music.
Ritornello, a closing pair of lines, set to different music in a different meter.

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Musica ficta

Chromatic alterations
Raising or lowering a note by a half step to avoid a tritons.
Pitches could also be altered to make a smoother melodic line.
The resulting pitches lay outside the gamut and were thus false.
Often used at cadences.

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Renaissance

"Rebirth"
This includes the fifteenth and sixteenth century.
An international style developed due to composers from Northern Europe working in Italy.
New rules for counterpoint controlled dissonance and elevated thirds and sixths in importance.
The predominant textures were imitative counterpoint and homophony.
Printing made notated music available to wide public, including armatures.
The Reformation generated changes in music for both Protestant and Catholic Churches.

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Homophony (homorhythm)

All voices move together in essentially the same rhythm
The lower parts accompany the Cantus line with consonant sonorities.

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Cantus Firmus mass

Mass in which the same Cantus Firmus, usually in the tenor, is the basis for all five movements.
The Cantus Firmus could be a chant or the tenor from a polyphonic s culprit song.
Sometimes also employs a unifying head-movement.
One of the most popular Cantus-Firmus melodies was l'homme armé
Four-voice texture became standardized by the mid-fifteenth century.

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Bass

The lower voice was called contrite or bassus and later simply bassus

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Alto

The contratenor above the tenor was called contratenor Altus, later simply Altus.

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Soprano

The top voice was called superious

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Canon

Latin: "rule"
Deriving two or more voices from a single melody.
Voices may be delayed, inverted, or retrograde.

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Josquin des Prez

Most influential composer of his time.
His chansons had a new style in this generation
Strophic texts, with virtually no use of the formes fixes.
Four- or five-voice texture, all voices meant to be sung.
All parts equal.
Employ imitation and homophony

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Chorale

Metric, rhymed, strophic poetry for unison, unaccompanied performance by the congregation.
Most important form of Lutheran church music
Congregations sang several chorales at each service.
Luther wrote many chorales himself.

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Ein feste Burg

Luther wrote this adapted from Psalm 46 for the text.
It became an anthem for the Reformation.

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Psalter

Collections of metrical psalms

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"Old Hundredth"

Published as Psalm 134 in France.
In English psalters the melody was used for Psalm 100.

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Service

With the anthem, one of the two principal forms of Anglican music.
Combines elements of Matins, Mass, and Evensong.

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Anthem

English equivalent of motet.
Sung by the choir.

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Byrd

The most important English composer of the Renaissance.
Probably studied with Thomas Tallis.
Catholic, yet served the Church of England as organist and choirmaster.

34

Palestrina

Spent his last 40 years as a choirmaster and teacher at influential churches in Rome.
Credited with saving polyphony from the Council of Trent.
His Pope Marcellus Mass, dedicated to the pope, demonstrated that sacred words could be intelligible in polyphonic music.
He said the mass was composed "in a new manner," and it does show attention to text-setting for clarity, but the legend exaggerates his role.
His type of melody is: long-breathed, easily singable, traces natural elegant curve, moves mostly by step, and most leaps followed by stepwise motion in opposite direction.
He made the texts intelligible by using syllabic text-setting and homophony in movements with long texts.

35

Triumphes of Oriana

By Thomas Morley.
Collection of 25 madrigals by 23 composers.
The title is in honor of Queen Elizabeth.
Each madrigal ends with the words "long live fair Oriana," referring to Elizabeth.

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Lute song

Solo song with this accompaniment was a popular genre in the early 1600s.
Leading composers were John Dowland and Thomas Campion.
More personal genre than the madrigal.
Less word-painting, with the instrument always subordinate to the melody.

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Clavichord

Soft-sounding solo instrument for small rooms.
Tone is sustained until player releases the key.
Player can control volume and can create vibrato.

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Harpsichord

The instrument family includes the virginal(England), clavecin (France)' and clavicembalo (Italy).
Louder than clavichord but without the nuances of dynamics or vibrato.
A second keyboard attached to two sets of strings produced a louder sound for contrast.
Strings are plucked, so the pitch is not sustained.

39

Virginal

A part of the harpsichord family.
It was used in England.

40

Toccata

Chief improvisatory keyboard genre.
Name derives from the Italian toccare ("to touch")

41

G. Gabrieli

Worked for St. Mark's from 1585 until his death.
Composed for multiple choirs.
He wrote polychoral motets.

42

Madrigal (16th century)

The most important secular genre of the sixteenth century.
Composers enriched the meaning and impact of the text through musical setting.
The genre became an experimental vehicle for dramatic characterization inspiring new compositional devices.
Topics included love songs and pastoral scenes.
Composers used a variety of techniques and textures.
All voices played an equal role, similar to the motet of the same period.
The earliest ones were fours voices. By midcentury, they were composed for five or more voices.
Performance could be vocal, or some parts could be played on instruments.