Unit 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (47):
1

Romanticism

The 1800s. Derived from the medieval romance. Something imaginary, far away from reality. In the 19th cent. the term was applied to literature, music, and art. Not bound by rules and limits, longing and the richness of nature. The focus was on the individuality of expression. Artists began pursuing their dreams not for money but for art. Music was seen as the ideal art.

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Character pieces

A type of instrumental piece that suggests a mood, personality, or scene that is usually indicated in the title.

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Ballad

A type of song. A new type of Lied from the late 18th cent. Often alternated narrative and dialogue. The piano became more of an equal to illustrate the meaning of the poem. In England, it was for home performance.

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Song cycle

Songs were often grouped into collections with a unifying characteristic, such as a single poet or a common theme. The groups of songs were to be performed in order, enabling the composer to tell a story.

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Franz Schubert

The first great master of the Romantic Lied. He wrote over 600 Lieder. He set poetry by many writers, including 59 by Goethe. He attempted to make the music equal to the words.

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Winterreise [Winter’s Journey]

Song cycle with music by Franz Schubert, poetry by Wilhelm Muller

7

Robert Schumann

The first important composer of Lieder after Schubert. Injured his hand, so he turned to composition and criticism. Opposed empty virtuosity and urged the study of older music. He mostly composed character pieces. He was inspired both emotionally emotionally and financially by his future marriage. He composed over 120 songs in 1840, the year he married Clara.
Clara was an outstanding pianist and composer. She stopped composing after her husband died, and she didn’t have any support. She wrote several collections of Lieder. She composed like him.

8

Parlor songs

In the US and Canada, they were songs for home performance. They were popular.. Usually strophic w/ piano preludes and postludes based on phrases from the tune. The expressivity lies in the melody. The accompaniment contains conventional figurations, as opposed to the more dramatic material found in Lieder. The singers were free to reshape the melody or accompaniment.

9

Foster

He was the leading song composer in the US. He had no formal training and taught himself several instruments. The first American to earn a living solely as a composer. He turned away from minstrel songs and composed for the parlor and the stage. He wrote his own texts. His tunes are almost always diatonic or pentatonic. The melodies move stepwise and are set in 4-measure phrases. The harmony and accompaniment are simple.

10

Impromptu

A form of character piece. Pieces that are written to sound like they were made up on the spot.

11

Felix Mendelssohn

A remarkable child prodigy, whose youthful productivity rivals Mozart. He founded the Leipzig Conservatory in 1843. He blended characteristics of Bach, Handel, Mozart, and Beethoven with those of his contemporaries. His larger piano works include three sonatas, variations, and fantasias.

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Lieder ohne Worte [Songs without Words]

48 works in 8 books. Mendelssohn believed that music could express feelings that words cannot.

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Fanny Hensel (Mendelssohn)

Felix’s sister. Married a painter, Wilhelm Hansel. She performed for friends and guests. She composed more than 400 works, including at least 250 songs and 125 piano works. Most were unpublished b/c of the objections of her father and brother.

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Étude

A form of character piece. A piece written for teaching, but are great by themselves.

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Prelude

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Polonaise

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Mazurka

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Tempo rubato

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Nocturne

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Ballade

A type of piano form

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Partsong

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A cappella

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Shape-notes

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Nationalism

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Rossini

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Bel canto

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Scena

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Cantabile

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Cabaletta

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Guillaume Tell [William Tell]

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Bellini

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Donizetti

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Reminiscence motive

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Grand opera

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Minstrel shows

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Gesamtkunstwerk

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Der Ring des Nibelungen [The Ring of the Nibelungs]

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Leitmotif

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Verdi

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Verismo

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Lyric opera

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Opéra bouffe

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The Mighty Five

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Operetta

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Gilbert & Sullivan

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Wolf

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Mahler

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