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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (47):
1

Baroque

Abnormal, exaggerated, in bad taste.
Applied as a derisive term by post-term critics because of the overly ornate art of the late term.
The first part of the common practice period.
Until 1750

2

First practice

Style and practice of sixteenth century polyphony.
Counterpoint rules could not be broken.
Dissonances had to be carefully controlled and restricted.

3

Second practice

Claudio Monteverdi believed counterpoint rules could be broken for dramatic effect.
Uses unprepared dissonances to express words.
Music had to serve the text.

4

Basso continuo

Thorough bass.
Specified only melody and bass with figures to indicate chords other than root position.
The foundation is shown through the figured bass.
It holds up the chords.

5

Figured bass

Part of the basso continuo
Improvised performance through realizing the bass
There is a code under the bass
It led to thinking in terms of chords instead of intervals
Played by two instruments: usually a keyboard and a low string instrument

6

Opera

Italian word for "work"
Union of verified play, drama, and music
Continuous or near-continuous singing.
Staged, with scenery, consumes, and actions.

7

Libretto

...

8

Intermedia

The most direct antecedent.
Musical entertainment before, after, and between the acts of plays.
There were usually six for each play.
Subjects were pastoral, allegorical, or mythological.

9

Monody

The term for accompanied vocal melodies of this era, including the type described by Galilei.
The solo melody was ideal for emotional expression.
Monophony

10

L'Eruidice

Music by Peri, libretto by Rinuccini, and directed by Cavalieri.
The settings by Peri and Cavalieri are the earliest surviving complete operas.
The story demonstrates music's power to move the emotions.
Orfeo (Orpheus) causes denizens of the underworld to weep through his music. He persuades the underworld to restore his wife, Euridice, to life.

11

Recitative

Peri invented this new idiom.
A speech-song that was halfway between oratory and song.
Notes of the basso continuo are held while the voice moves freely through consonances and dissonances.
The voices simulates the free declamation of poetry.
Consonances occur on all stressed syllables.

12

Aria

Strophic form.
Tuneful and rhythmic
Introduced by a brief sinfonia, an ensemble piece that serves as a prelude.
The ritornello is an instrumental refrain that follows each stanza.

13

Monteverdi

He created the first work to show the full opt entail of opera.

14

L'Orfeo

The first work to show the full potential of opera.
Monteverdi specified instruments in his score.
The arias are strophic, but strop he's are varied to reflect the text
Recitative style varies depending on the situation in the drama.

15

Castrato

Men who had been castrated before puberty sang treble parts in church because women were not permitted to sing in church.
In Rome, women were not permitted on stage, so they sang the treble roles.
Castrati later sang outside of Italy as well, but only in male roles.

16

Cantata

Originally simply "piece to be sung"
By the mid-seventeenth century, secular composition on a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text, usually for solo voice with continuo, and contains several sections, including recitative and aria.

17

Strozzi

Venetian singer and composer
Studied with Cavalli
Supported by her father and wealthy patrons
Published eight collections of music in the mid 17th-century, for a total of over one hundred works
Published more cantatas than any other composer of the time.

18

Sacred concerto

Large-scale:
For major feast days at large churches
Many voices and instruments, sometimes in cori spezzati (divided choir)
Used for setting of Vespers, psalms, and movements of the mass.
Small scale:
For solo singer(s) with organ and often one or two violins.

19

Oratorio

Religious dramatic music incorporating narrative, dialogue, and commentary.
Text was Latin or Italian.
Developed in Rome in the 17th century.
Different from Opera: almost never staged, used a narrator, and the chorus took on different roles and functions.

20

Schütz

Studied with G. Gabrieli in Venice
In the service of the elector's court in Dresden.
Composed in all genres.
Used Italian monody to portray the text.
Wrote O Lieber Herre Gott

21

Passion

Settings of the story of Jesus' crucifixion
were the most common type of historia

22

Frescobaldi

The most important composer of toccatas.
His keyboard music was renowned in his lifetime, and his compositional style became the model for subsequent generations.

23

Chorale prelude

Settings of chorales.

24

Lully

Appointed the court composer of instrumental music and direct of the Petits Violons.
Appointed Superintendent of Music for the King's Chamber
Granted exclusive right to produce sung drama in France, and established the Academie Royale de Musique
He insisted on uniform bowing and coordination of ornaments, and established a long tradition of conductors excursions dictatorial control over orchestras.

25

Tragédie lyrique

A French version of opera.
Established by Lully and playwright Jean-Phillipe Quinault.
Stories were serious stories drawn from mythology or chivalric tales.

26

Suite: all emanate, courante, sarabande, gigue

1: French for German. Moderately fast. 4/4 meter. Begins with an upbeat. Continuous movement in style luthé, with frequent agréments.
2. French for running or flowing. Based on a dignified dance step. Triple or compound meter, or alternation between triple and compound.
3. Originally a fast dance from Latin America. Brought to France via Spain and Italy. The stylized dance is in a slow tempo. Triple meter, with an emphasis on the second beat.
4. French for jig. Originated in the British Isles. Fast tempo. Compound division. Movement in continuous triplets. Often begins with a section in fugal or quasi-fugal style.

27

Purcell

Spent his entire career in service of the English monarchy.
Jobs included choirboy, composer, organist, keeper of the king's instruments, and organ maker.
Composed in all genres but focused on vocal music.
Known for setting English text in natural-sounding declamation.
Incorporated French and Italian elements.

28

Catch

A round or canon with a humorous, often ribald text, sung at all-male gatherings.

29

Da capo aria

The favorite type of ... Because it offered an opportunity for embellishment in the repeat.
ABA form.
Instruct the performers to repeat the first section, resulting in an ABA form. The most common form of aria in Scarlatti's operas and cantatas.
A section: small two-part form with two different settings of the same text.
Instrumental ritornello said introduce smell divisions in the form.
The B section is in a new key and mode to reflect a change of emotion in the text.

30

Fugue: exposition, subject, answer, episode

Supplanted other terms for pieces in imitative counterpoint.
Multiple melody lines played on one instrument. Perpetual motion.
1. A set of entries of the subject. First section with one voice doing the theme. Each voice states the tune.
2. Livelier and have more sharply drawn melodies than those of ricercare.
3. Second entrance of the subject, contrasting with the first in a tonic-dominant relationship; sometimes adjusted to fit the new key.
4. Periods of free counterpoint between statements of the subject. No one is doing the tune.

31

Couperin

He was the organist to the king of France.
He taught harpsichord to members of the aristocracy.
He published his own music.
He composed some ordres

32

Ordres

Each one contains a number of miniature works, generally based on dance rhythms and set in a binary form.
Most of the pieces have evocative titles.

33

Rameau

Began as an organist in the provinces of France.
By age forty, he was recognized as a theorist. He achieved fame as a composer in his fifties.
His music was initially criticized for being radical, but later it was thought to be reactionary.
He was best known for his operas, although he also wrote keyboard music, a set of trio sonatas, and some vocal music.
He introduced melodies that derived from the harmony.
He uses a richer harmonic palette, including more chromaticism.

34

J. S. Bach

In his day, he Was known as an organist and a composer of learned works, but little of his music was published or circulated.
Today, he is seen as one of the greatest of all composers.
in his first job as an organist, he composed a lot of organ music.
He became concertmaster at Weimar and wrote sacred cantatas.
He was in charge of four churches and wrote a significant amount of religious music.
He composed keyboard music at Leipzig, including pedagogical works.
With vocal music, He began with the vocal melody, matching the accents and meaning of the words.

35

Orgelbüchlein

Little Organ Book
This manuscript collection of chorale preludes was written at Weimar.
The book had a pedagogical aim in addition to providing repertoire.
In each prelude, the chorale tune is heard once in: canon, elaborately ornamented, or unadorned with a variety of accompaniments.

36

Well-Tempered Clavier

2 separate publications, each with 24 preludes and fugues.
The pairs of movements in each collection are set in all of the major and minor keys in order to demonstrate the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in near-equal temperament.
The works had pedagogical functions as well.
The preludes illustrate different types of keyboard performance conventions.
The fugues are a compendium of fugal writing, ranging from two to five voices.

37

Goldberg Variations

The theme is set with a sarabande rhythm.
The thirty variations preserve the bass and harmonic structure of the theme.
Every third variation is a canon. The first is at the interval of a unison. The second canon is at the interval of a second. This pattern continues until the last canon, which is at a ninth.
The non-canonic variations are in a variety in a variety of forms.
The last variation is a quodlibet, which contains two popular-song melodies in counterpoint above the bass of the theme.

38

St. Matthew Passion

By Bach.
Uses recitatives, arias, choruses, chorales, and orchestral accompaniment.
Soloist and chorus.
Refers to Jesus and other figures.

39

Mass in B Minor

Bach's only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary, was assembled between 1747 and 1749.
Bach adapted much of the music from earlier compositions.
It juxtaposes diverse sacred styles.

40

G. F. Handel

He traveled more than most composers of the time.
He created an eclectic style using elements of German, Italian, French, and English music.

41

Recitativo secco

Long passages of dialogue and monologue that were set in a speechlike fashion accompanied by the basso continuo, which would also be called simple recitative.
Often in operas.

42

Recitativo obbligato

Tense situations in operas used recitative accompanied by the orchestra, which was also called accompanied recitative.

43

Prima Donna

The principal female in the opera.
She had the most and best arias.

44

Coloratura

Some arias contained brilliant displays of of ornamentation.

45

The Messiah

Premiered in 1741.
A libretto, taken from the Bible, that doesn't tell a story, but presents a series of contemplations on Christian ideas.
The texts extend from the prophecies of a messiah to the resurrection.
Uses French overture, Italian recitatives and da capo arias, Germanic choral fugues, and English choral anthem style.

46

Toccatas

Series of short sections in free style alternating with longer ones in imitative counterpoint.
Virtuosic for both keyboard and pedals.
Improvisation is suggested by irregular phrase lengths, inconclusive endings, and abrupt changes of texture, harmony, or melodic direction.

47

Cantatas

The texts would reinforce the meaning of the day's Gospel reading.
These new works combined features of the chorale, solo song, recitative, and aria.
Played an important role in the Lutheran liturgy of Leipzig.
Required soloists, strings, winds, and a continuo.