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Flashcards in UNIT 1 Deck (86):
1

yarn

produced when a number of fibres are spun together to make a continuous lenth

2

piled yarn

two or more yarns are twisted together with added strength and bulk

3

examples of hair fibres

mohair, alpaca, llama

4

examples of bast fibres

linen, hemp, ramie

5

examples of regenerated fibres

viscose, rayon, acetate

6

examples of synthetic fibres

polyester, acrylic, nylon

7

examples of inorganic fibres

glass, metallic, carbon

8

retting

soften the stem and pull it apart to get the useful fibres
used for jute/hessian

9

give 3 properties of linen

strong, highly absorbent, non-static

10

give 3 properties of jute

lustrous, little elasticity, weak

11

what is jute sometimes called

hessian

12

give 3 properties of ramie

strong, coarse, absorent

13

describe the properties of hemp

same as linen

14

linen can retain ...% of its weight in moisture

50%

15

properties of bast fibres

strong, absorbent, biodegradable

16

examples of eco-fibres

hemp and bamboo

17

eco-fibres

raw materials used to manufacture textiles without using pesticides, chemicals, or synthetic fertilisers

18

examples of aramid fibres

nomex and kevlar

19

what are synthetic fibres made from?

petrochemicals

20

three ways synthetic fibres are made

melt extrusion, solvent-dry extrusion, solvent-wet extrusion

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melt extrusion

used for a polymer which when heated will melt and become liquid

22

solvent-dry extrusion

used for a polymer that would be damaged by heating, but it able to be dissolved in a solvent that evaporates

23

solvent-wet extrusion

used for a polymer that would be damaged by heating, and can only be dissolved in a solvent that does not evaporate

24

which aramid fibre is high strength

kevlar

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which aramid fibre is heat resistant

nomex

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properties of aramid fibres

no melting point, low flammability, strong

27

kevlar product

bullet protection vest

28

nomex product

oven gloves

29

which fibre uses the wet spinning method?

vicose

30

tencel

brand name for lyocell

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which fibre uses the dry spinning method?

acetate

32

cabled yarns

made by twisting two or more piled yarns together

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core yarns

made by covering a core filament yarn with staple fibres in a single spinning porcess

34

example of fancy yarns

boucle, chenille, brocade

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what are textured yarns made from?

thermoplastic fibres

36

air-jet texturing

the yarn is fed through a turbulent air stread which causes entangled loops to be formed in the filaments

37

false-twist texturing

the yarn is heated, untwisted, and permanently set by cooling

38

thread count

measures the coarseness or fineness of fabric, it is measured by counting the number of threads contained in one square inch of fabric

39

denier

linear mass density of fibres per 9000m

40

blend

spinning two or more fibres together to make a yarn

41

examples of blends

cotton and polyester, elastane and anything, wool and nylon

42

examples of basic weaves

plain, twill, satin

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examples of fancy weaves

brocade, damask, gabardine

44

examples of special woven effects

plaids, tartan, gingham

45

Ashinti strip weaving

made in Ghana, weave a variety of colours together

46

Ikat

made in Indonesia

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examples of weft knitted

single jersey, double jersey, rib knit

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examples of warp knitted

tricot and velour

49

advantage of warp knitted

does not ladder but can be unravelled row by row

50

methods of creating open work

lace, crotchet, braid

51

examples of fastenings

polyester buttons, plastic zip, nylon velcro

52

Regenerated cellulosic

viscose, modal, lyocell, cupro, acetate and
triacetate, rubber, alginate,

53

name some microfibres

elastane and tencel

54

what tests would be done to the materials?

tensile strength, seam strength, burst strength, tear strength, crease resistance, flammability

55

why are fabrics bleached before colour is added?

to make them evenly white

56

commercial names for wool

optima and sportwool

57

optima

wool fibre which has been stretched and reset so is superfine and soft used for suits

58

sportwool

mix of merino wool and polyester
used in sports clothing for cyclists etc and firefighters base layer

59

difference between worsted and woollen

worsted is woven, woollen is knitted

60

Elastomeric

Stretch and return back to natural shape eg Lycra and rubber

61

Fluorofibres

Teflon and goretex

62

Polyamide

Nylon

63

Polyacrylic

Acrylic

64

Chlorofibres

Polyvinyl (PVC)

65

Polyolefines

Polyethylene and polypropylene
Used for vegetable bags

66

End use of nomex

Oven gloves

67

End use of Kevlar

Bullet proof vest

68

Regenerated fibres

Made from wood pulp (cellulose)
They are partly natural and partly synthetic as a chemical is needed it extract the fibres

69

Pollution from making viscose fibres

Uses wet spinning method
By products of carbon disulphides and others which has polluting effects causing factories to close

70

Modal is a type of...

Rayon

71

Tencel is a brand name for...

Lyocell

72

Cupro

A regenerated cellulosic fibre made from cotton linter

73

Describe knitted fabric construction

One set of yarn which is worked either horizontally or vertically (not both)

74

Describe warp knitted construction

One set of yarn for each wale, each yarn only travels vertically

75

Products made from warp knitting

Net and lace curtain fabrics and fabrics that imitate crochet

76

How is weft knitting produced?

By hand, on a domestic knitting machine, or industrially

77

Describe weft knitted construction

One yarn travels the width of the fabric

78

Advantages of weft knitted fabrics

Drapes softly and takes the shape of the body
Doesn’t crease easily
Good insulator in still air but in wind the air can go through the holes

79

Disadvantages of weft knitting

Easily distorted when washed
Ladders easily when snagged

80

Advantages of warp knitting

Doesn’t ladder but can be unravelled row by row
Greater scope for the production of a variety of fabrics
Cheaper method of production
Faster than weft knitting

81

3D knitting

Nike flyknit
A seamlessly knitted running shoe

82

Types of weft knit

Single jersey
Double jersey
Rib knit
Hand knit
Machine knit

83

Types of warp knit

Tricot
Velour

84

Ashanti strip weaving

Kente cloth made in Ghana used for special occasions and uses bright colours and geometric shapes

85

How is Ashanti strip weaving made

Double weave

86

What are the cultural weaves I need to know

Ashanti strip weaving
South American blackstrap weaving loom
Ikat