UNIT 2 Flashcards Preview

Textiles > UNIT 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in UNIT 2 Deck (197):
1

one off production

expensive, made-to-measure, highly skilled workers

2

mass production

products that don't change with fashion, identical, cost effective

3

progressive bundle system

teams produce parts of a garment to be passed onto the next team

4

EPOS

electronic point of sale, tills in the shops which give details of what is being sold

5

QRM

quick response manufacturing, produces garments quickly in response to customer demand

6

What does a fashion designer do?

creating designs by hand or CAD, keeping up-to-date with trends, work with buyers and forecasters to develop products

7

what does a retail buyer have to consider before buying?

customer demand, market trends, store policy

8

What does a merchandiser do?

ensure products appear at the right store a the right time, accurately forecast trends, plan stock levels

9

what does a fabric and garment technologist do?

works on the design, development, and production of fibres, yarns, and textiles

10

what does a visual merchandiser do?

design displays - window and in-store

11

fad

catch on well and peak quickly

12

example of a fad

jeggings

13

classic

practical, easy to use products that are always needed

14

example of a classic product

tights

15

standard product life cycle

most fashion products follow a standard cycle lasting about two years

16

example of a product with a standard life cycle

pencil skirt

17

characteristics of niche markets

large enough to be profitable, has demand growth potential, sufficiently differenciated

18

advantages of niche markets

less competition, clear focus, requires fewer resources

19

disadvantages of niche markets

lack of economies of scale, attracts competition, small number of customers

20

economy of scale

buy more so get it cheaper

21

examples of niche markets

industrial clothing, hoppy clothing, subculture clothing

22

ecommerce

refers to the buying and selling over the internet

23

examples of ethical issues

body image, fur, cultures

24

negative effects of major developments in textiles technology

more products so bad on environment
throwaway fashion
less employment so bad for economy
ethical issues (pressure to make garments cheaper so pay people less)

25

trickle down effect

style adopted by top of society and lower people try to copy it but once the lower people have it the top people don't want it

26

example of trickle down effect

Burberry's iconic check was easily copied and sold cheaply so now is rarely used

27

example of a trade fair

Premiere Vision, held twice a year in Paris

28

eco-fashion

clothes that take into account the environment, the health of consumers, and the working conditions of people in the fashion industry

29

risk assesment

identifying the risks and putting control systems in place to minimise the risk of injury or accident

30

HSE

(the health and safety executive) advises people of health and safety and sets regulations that employers must follow

31

BS5722

flammability of fabrics used in sleepwear and dressing gowns

32

performance textiles

for outdoor pursuits or sport - specific end use eg skiing or swimming

33

what is vivienne westwood best known for?

setting off the punk trend and being generally shocking and controversial

34

major developments in fibre production

non traditional fibre sources such as pineapple leaf

35

major developments in yarn production

heat treatments on yarn to give texture such as crimping or bulking

36

biomimetrics

fabrics that imitate nature

37

example of biomimetrics

fastskin by speedo - fabric for swimwear that acts like shark skin

38

the age of opulence

1900-1910

39

the health corset

invented by a french woman
confined the waist even more than before

40

s-bend

edwardian + heavily corseted

41

t-shape silhouette

huge hats and slimmer and straighter dresses
1908 ish

42

Paul Poiret

1900-1910
got rid of the corset

43

Boer war influence on fashion

1900-1910
men wore their uniforms to social events

44

fashion of the flappers

cloche hats, bobbed hair, short skirts

45

handbags in 1900-1910

women didn't generally carry handbags
small, decorative, hung on delicate straps from the wrist

46

influence of the suffragettes in 1900-1910

tailored jackets and trousers called a tailor-made as more practical and masculine

47

Role of women in 1900-1910

Role as ornaments
Highly impractical dress style

48

Hobble skirts

1910-1920
Narrow at hem so women could only take small steps

49

An influential designer for 1910-1920 decade and his influences

Poiret
Art and design of the Middle East and India as seen with his Turkish skirt and harem skirt

50

Pneumonia blouse

1913
V neck neckline - the doctors warned it was a danger to health

51

How did dancing affect fashion in 1910-1920? And what types of dance were most popular?

Tango dress
Ragtime dance needed easy fitting dresses

52

Impact of WW1 on fashion

Skirts shorter
A lot of women having to work so styles were more practical

53

Chanel in 1910-1920

In 1916 her simple tops, skirts, and chemise dresses were popular

54

ethical issues in fashion

body image
fur
cultures
consumption
environment
advertising
forgeries
sweatshops
inequality
blood diamonds

55

what does a colourist do

resourcing colours and producing mood boards
producing colour stories for the future

56

product classification groups

furnishing textiles
industrial textiles
performance textiles

57

geotextiles

permeable membranes made mainly from synthetic fibres, used in contact with soil or rocks in the construction of roads etc

58

examples of japanese designers

rei kawakubo
issey miyake
yohji yamamoto

59

examples of textiles designers

zika ascher
bronwy bancroft
sigrun berg

60

examples of young and british designers

j w anderson
charli cohen
molly goddard

61

describe the fashion of the edwardian era (1900-1910)

great ostentation and extravagance

62

men's fashion 1900-1910

english gentlemen (correctly dressed)
kahki uniforms
uniforms for special occasions

63

influence of cinema and the russian ballet on fashion 1900-1910

interior decoration, jewellery, dress design more colourful

64

sports for women in 1900-1910

clothes more relaxed but by today's standards still highly unsuitable

65

women's hairstyles of the 1910s

dutch bob (short and straight)
titus cut (wavy and feathery)

66

effect of ready made clothes in england and america 1910-1920

class distinction through dress was not quite so blatant

67

teenage dressing in 1910s

girls: called flappers
boys: more casual, use of home knitting

68

men's fashion in 1910s

trench coat became popular by burberry's of london

69

how was cinema an important influence on women in 1910s

heavily outlined eyes
sophisticated
headbands
long cigarette holders

70

dance in 1910s

jazz

71

why were there egyptian influences in the roaring twenties

the excavations of tutankhamen's tomb

72

egyptian influences twenties

egyptian style motifs in embroidery on dresses, jackets, an coats

73

how high were the very short skirts of the twenties

5cm below the knee

74

new things in the twenties

cosmetics and sunbathing

75

garconne look

short, straight silhouette
deliberately flatten breasts

76

chanel in the twenties

use of jersey fabrics
little black dress

77

men's fashion of the twenties

exaggeratedly wide flapping trousers known as oxford bags
literary and artistic figures eg cecil beaton had flamboyant style of dress that was not accepted

78

children's fashio in the twenties

miniature versions of the adult fashions , simpler and easy fitting

79

mass entertainment in the twenties

charleston dance - glitter embroidered bodices
cinema where people copied the outfits

80

popular cruises in the thirties

swimwear - introduction of the 2 piece swimming costume

81

sportswear of the thirties

designed to cater for the functional needs of the sport rather than modifying basic day styles

82

foxes in the thirties

fur trimming was popular, pair of foxes worn as accessories

83

name an influential designer of the thirties and why they were innovative

schiaparelli - use of the zip fastener in haute couture

84

what was schiaparelli influenced by

surrealistic art eg by salvador dali
as shown by shocking pink

85

cinema stars who were admired for their fashion in the thirties

greta garbo and marlene dietrich

86

children's clothes in the thirties

girl's outfits looked less like miniature versions of women's fashions - dresses cut like a long button through shirt were popular

87

men's fashion in the thirties

inspired by the filmstars and sportsmen in the mass media of the time i.e. athletic wide shouldered figure

88

what did balenciaga's silhouette look like in the thirties

hourglass figure, longer skirts

89

siren suits

all in one boiler suits worn by women and children in air raid shelters in ww2

90

impact of ww2 on fashion

clothes and fabrics were rationed from 1941 onwards so make do and mend

91

regulations on clothes in ww2

utility clothes (regulations introduced on the amount of material used and quality eg number of pockets)

92

cc41

clothing control 1941
used in utility clothing

93

british couture designers in the forties who designed special ranges of utility clothes

norman hartnell and digby morton

94

american designers in the forties

american women needed practical clothes and their everyday outfits were based on interchangeable separates - idea began catching on in europe

95

where did special teenage fashions begin in the forties

usa

96

men's fashion in the forties

american fashions dominated
wedge-shaped line: padded shoulders and wide straight trousers

97

demob suit

when men were demobilised at the end of ww2 they were given a poor quality civilian suit

98

dior's new look

1947

99

post war younger generation fashion

ww2
boys: casual t shirts
girls; either v full or v narrow skirts

100

young men's fashion in the forties

duffle coats and army surplus stuff

101

influence of cycling in young women's fashion in the forties

pedal pushers - trousers

102

swimwear in the forties

the first bikini appeared named after the atomic bomb test at bikini atoll

103

what did clothing manufactures focus on in the forties

the youth market
made young looking inexpensive dresses for summer

104

when was nylon discovered and when was it used

discovered in 1929
commercially available in 1940 - used for stockings

105

name two designers of the 50s and what their style was

dior and balenciaga
ultra feminine styles and a semi-fitted look

106

basics of a woman's wardrobe in the 50s

tailored clothes - suit jackets and matching skirts

107

sheath dresses

50s, made of rayon, worn in the summer

108

shoes of the 50s

stiletto heeled shoes

109

evening dresses in the 50s

very full skirts to achieve victorian style silhouette

110

men's fashion in the 50s

slim ties, drainpipe trousers finished above the ankle
called teddy boys

111

rock and roll stars of the 50s and their fashion

elvis, james dean
leather jackets, tshirts, blue jeans

112

chanel in the 50s

classic suits and cardigan jackets

113

the sack

1957 easier fitting dress that was short in length

114

new synthetic fibres of the 50s

terylene, acrilan, bri-nylon, orlon
lycra in 1959

115

trousers for women in the 50s

accepted as casual wear but not worn in offices or fancy restaurants

116

fashion of the anti establishment views held in the late 50s

beatnik - short tight skirts, flannel shirts, denim jeans, leather jackets

117

example of cult fashions in the 50s

yves saint laurent

118

Explain the popularity of the Chanel suit in the 1960s

Interchangeable separates but still formal

119

Explain the popularity of the shift dress of the 60s

Suited the arm and hip movements of the twist (dance craze) due to being sleeveless and unfitted line

120

Types of trouser style in the sixties

Hipster
Bell bottom

121

The western look 1960s

A lot of denim basically

122

What were 1960s stretch trousers made from?

Wool and helanca or wool and bri-nylon to make them skin tight

123

Use of leather in the sixties

Kinky leather gear (basically using leather for everything)

124

Impact of PVC on the 60s

It was shiny and brightly coloured and less expensive and so the ‘wet-look’ became fashionable

125

Explain unisex fashions of the sixties

Trousers and shirts of the same fabrics and colours were worn by men and women

126

Impact of the Beatles on sixties fashion

Slim fitting, high fastening or collarless suits and jackets

127

André Courrèges’ autumn 1964 collection

Space exploration
The mini skirt

128

Pierre Cardin’s designs in the sixties

Futuristic with clean architectural designs

129

Mary Quant in the 60s

Opened her first shop called bazaar in 1955
Shortened skirt lengths and used vibrant colours and stripes

130

Reefer jackets

1960s
Double breasted jackets in flannel and gabardine

131

Describe the boyish look of the 1960s

Simple tshirt dresses
Short hairstyles
Twiggy

132

Dolly look of the 1969s

Skinny ribs (ribbed pullovers in pastel colours)
Lace
Pale colours

133

Fashion photography in the 60s

In colour
Models jumping and running to fit the mood of the swinging sixties

134

Popular fabrics of the sixties and why were they popular

Crimplene and trevira
Easy care

135

Children’s clothes in the 1960s

Colourful
Knitted fabrics
Dungarees

136

Describe menswear in the sixties

Peacock revolution (bc colourful)
Unisex
Suits and jackets still based on Italian shapes of the 50s
Shirt collars were small

137

1960s: hippies and flower power, describe the look

Floor length kaftans
Beading
Flared
Loose fits

138

1960s: the romantic look, describe the look

Crushed velvet
Frilly blouses

139

Zhivago coats (also called maxi coats)

1960s
Lower calf and ankle length coats

140

When were midis introduced and why were they largely unsuccessful?

1969s
Minis were still popular and new so people not ready to give them up

141

Sports clothing in the sixties

Skiing holidays not exclusively for the wealthy anymore
Anoraks used for everyday wear
Bikinis became smaller

142

What fashion item became popular in the seventies due to and increase in women’s self confidence

Hot pants

143

Shoes of the seventies

Platform soles

144

What did stylish young women wear in the seventies

Trousers suits

145

Popular styles of trouser suits in the seventies

Flares and bags

146

Fashion for men and women in the 70s

Unisex

147

Children’s clothes in the 70s

Children’s market growing in importance so parents spending more than previous generations

148

Young men’s fashion in the seventies

Large collared shirts
Wide kipper ties
Necklaces

149

Most universally worn garment of the 70s

Blue denim jeans

150

Styles of jeans in the 70s

Faded
Ragged hem

151

Designer jeans in the 70s

Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, parry Ellis

152

T-shirts in the 70s

Had names, slogans, messages on them etc

153

Skinheads in the 70s

Bovver boots
Baggy trousers
Vest

154

The clothing market in the 70s

Highly competitive
Look for new ways to cut costs
Manufacturing in India and Far East

155

Laura Ashley in the seventies

Country style
Victorian prints
Ankle length skirts
Bodices

156

Film and pop music in the seventies

Stars exaggerated or endorsed trends rather than starting new ones

157

Middle East war 1973

Fuel prices rose
People had less money to spend on clothes

158

Kenzo in the seventies

Ethnic look
Nostalgia for the 20s

159

Layered look70s

Waistcoats and pullovers over long skirts with long capes or topcoats and long scarves with big boots

160

Boiler suit 70s

Girls wore these well fitting suits in a variety of fabrics for special occasions as well as every day practical clothing

161

Disco dancing 70s

Clothes allowed for more movement eg trousers

162

Trouser shapes in the 70s

Narrow
Straight lines

163

The Sloane ranger

Princess Diana 70s
Practical separates

164

Punk fashion70s

Bondage trousers
Sex pistols
Vivienne Westwood

165

Fiorucci 70s

Italian shop which sold punk clothing for the young

166

Active sports 70s

Both sexes took up jogging so practical clothes was required

167

Moon boots 70s

Modernistic shapes and fastenings

168

Missoni 70s

Italian knitwear brand with artistic combinations or yarns stitches and colours

169

Giorgio Armani 70s

Set new silhouettes for men’s wear

170

The importance of the logo in the 80s

Money obsessed and image conscious
Competitive group of people
Called yuppies

171

Armani in The eighties

Known for his menswear

172

Influence of Margret thatcher in the eighties

Power suit for women

173

Describe three of Vivienne Westwood’s eighties collections

Her collection ‘pirate’: Asymmetrical tshirts, breeches, big boots
Her collection ‘buffalo’: underwear as outerwear
Her ‘mini-crini’ collection: club dance wear

174

Moschino style in the eighties

Influenced by surrealists
Tshirts with slogans like ‘for fashion victims’

175

Katherine hamnett

80s
‘Choose life’ collection included tshirts like ‘58% don’t want Pershing’

176

Who was an Important influence on menswear in the eighties

Paul Smith

177

Princess Diana in the eighties

Wedding dress

178

Japanese designers in the eighties

Miyake, Yamamoto, kawakubo

179

Jean Paul gaultier 80s

Madonna’s conical cups
French designs

180

American designers in the eighties

Donna Karen (big city sophistication)
Norma kamali (cotton fleece tracksuit)

181

what decade of fashion involved dressing down?

1990-2000
dress down fridays

182

grunge look definition and designers

1990
mix of punk and hippie styles
marc jacobs and anna sui

183

rap influence 1990s

hip hop styles
casual layered sportswear

184

street style in the 1990s

vans, nike air jordans, timberland boots, adidas, puma

185

important accessory in the 90s

handbags

186

name a unisex style in the 90s

layering and grundge

187

supermodels of the 90s

naomi cambell
claudia schiffer
featured in advertisements for versace jeans which became popular because of their involvement

188

designers of the 90s that took inspiration from china and japan

alexander mcqueen, john gallioano, valentino, issey miyake

189

antifashion attitude 90s

minimalistic
rifat ozbek

190

sportswear style 90s

comfortable stretch fabrics and trainers

191

alexander mcqueen in the 90s

highland rape collection 1995-96 tartans, chains, rips

192

vivienne westwood in the 90s

historical designs which started the trend of handcrafted and traditional textiles

193

katherine hamnett

endorsed environmentally friendly fabrics in the 90s

194

characteristics of eco fashion in the 90s

natural fibres, hemp, birkenstock sandals, leather substitute

195

lucy orta

refugee wear 1992 including sleeping bags and tents

196

cyber fashions 1990s

science fiction, virtual reality, punk, rubber, pvc, and leather

197

deconstruction style

antwerp six and ann demeulemeester