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Flashcards in UNIT 2 Deck (104):
1

one off production

expensive, made-to-measure, highly skilled workers

2

mass production

products that don't change with fashion, identical, cost effective

3

progressive bundle system

teams produce parts of a garment to be passed onto the next team

4

EPOS

electronic point of sale, tills in the shops which give details of what is being sold

5

QRM

quick response manufacturing, produces garments quickly in response to customer demand

6

What does a fashion designer do?

creating designs by hand or CAD, keeping up-to-date with trends, work with buyers and forecasters to develop products

7

what does a retail buyer have to consider before buying?

customer demand, market trends, store policy

8

What does a merchandiser do?

ensure products appear at the right store a the right time, accurately forecast trends, plan stock levels

9

what does a fabric and garment technologist do?

works on the design, development, and production of fibres, yarns, and textiles

10

what does a visual merchandiser do?

design displays - window and in-store

11

fad

catch on well and peak quickly

12

example of a fad

jeggings

13

classic

practical, easy to use products that are always needed

14

example of a classic product

tights

15

standard product life cycle

most fashion products follow a standard cycle lasting about two years

16

example of a product with a standard life cycle

pencil skirt

17

characteristics of niche markets

large enough to be profitable, has demand growth potential, sufficiently differenciated

18

advantages of niche markets

less competition, clear focus, requires fewer resources

19

disadvantages of niche markets

lack of economies of scale, attracts competition, small number of customers

20

economy of scale

buy more so get it cheaper

21

examples of niche markets

industrial clothing, hoppy clothing, subculture clothing

22

ecommerce

refers to the buying and selling over the internet

23

examples of ethical issues

body image, fur, cultures

24

negative effects of major developments in textiles technology

more products so bad on environment
throwaway fashion
less employment so bad for economy
ethical issues (pressure to make garments cheaper so pay people less)

25

trickle down effect

style adopted by top of society and lower people try to copy it but once the lower people have it the top people don't want it

26

example of trickle down effect

Burberry's iconic check was easily copied and sold cheaply so now is rarely used

27

example of a trade fair

Premiere Vision, held twice a year in Paris

28

eco-fashion

clothes that take into account the environment, the health of consumers, and the working conditions of people in the fashion industry

29

risk assesment

identifying the risks and putting control systems in place to minimise the risk of injury or accident

30

HSE

(the health and safety executive) advises people of health and safety and sets regulations that employers must follow

31

BS5722

flammability of fabrics used in sleepwear and dressing gowns

32

performance textiles

for outdoor pursuits or sport - specific end use eg skiing or swimming

33

what is vivienne westwood best known for?

setting off the punk trend and being generally shocking and controversial

34

major developments in fibre production

non traditional fibre sources such as pineapple leaf

35

major developments in yarn production

heat treatments on yarn to give texture such as crimping or bulking

36

biomimetrics

fabrics that imitate nature

37

example of biomimetrics

fastskin by speedo - fabric for swimwear that acts like shark skin

38

the age of opulence

1900-1910

39

the health corset

invented by a french woman
confined the waist even more than before

40

s-bend

edwardian + heavily corseted

41

t-shape silhouette

huge hats and slimmer and straighter dresses
1908 ish

42

Paul Poiret

1900-1910
got rid of the corset

43

Boer war influence on fashion

1900-1910
men wore their uniforms to social events

44

fashion of the flappers

cloche hats, bobbed hair, short skirts

45

handbags in 1900-1910

women didn't generally carry handbags
small, decorative, hung on delicate straps from the wrist

46

influence of the suffragettes in 1900-1910

tailored jackets and trousers called a tailor-made as more practical and masculine

47

Role of women in 1900-1910

Role as ornaments
Highly impractical dress style

48

Hobble skirts

1910-1920
Narrow at hem so women could only take small steps

49

An influential designer for 1910-1920 decade and his influences

Poiret
Art and design of the Middle East and India as seen with his Turkish skirt and harem skirt

50

Pneumonia blouse

1913
V neck neckline - the doctors warned it was a danger to health

51

How did dancing affect fashion in 1910-1920?

Tango dress
Ragtime dance needed easy fitting dresses

52

Impact of WW1 on fashion

Skirts shorter
A lot of women having to work so styles were more practical

53

Chanel in 1910-1920

In 1916 her simple tops, skirts, and chemise dresses were popular

54

ethical issues in fashion

body image
fur
cultures
consumption
environment
advertising
forgeries
sweatshops
inequality
blood diamonds

55

what does a colourist do

resourcing colours and producing mood boards
producing colour stories for the future

56

product classification groups

furnishing textiles
industrial textiles
performance textiles

57

geotextiles

permeable membranes made mainly from synthetic fibres, used in contact with soil or rocks in the construction of roads etc

58

examples of japanese designers

rei kawakubo
issey miyake
yohji yamamoto

59

examples of textiles designers

zika ascher
bronwy bancroft
sigrun berg

60

examples of young and british designers

j w anderson
charli cohen
molly goddard

61

describe the fashion of the edwardian era (1900-1910)

great ostentation and extravagance

62

men's fashion 1900-1910

english gentlemen (correctly dressed)
kahki uniforms
uniforms for special occasions

63

influence of cinema and the russian ballet on fashion 1900-1910

interior decoration, jewellery, dress design more colourful

64

sports for women in 1900-1910

clothes more relaxed but by today's standards still highly unsuitable

65

women's hairstyles of the 1910s

dutch bob (short and straight)
titus cut (wavy and feathery)

66

effect of ready made clothes in england and america 1910-1920

class distinction through dress was not quite so blatant

67

teenage dressing in 1910s

girls: called flappers
boys: more casual, use of home knitting

68

men's fashion in 1910s

trench coat became popular by burberry's of london

69

how was cinema an important influence on women in 1910s

heavily outlined eyes
sophisticated
headbands
long cigarette holders

70

dance in 1910s

jazz

71

why were there egyptian influences in the roaring twenties

the excavations of tutankhamen's tomb

72

egyptian influences twenties

egyptian style motifs in embroidery on dresses, jackets, an coats

73

how high were the very short skirts of the twenties

5cm below the knee

74

new things in the twenties

cosmetics and sunbathing

75

garconne look

short, straight silhouette
deliberately flatten breasts

76

chanel in the twenties

use of jersey fabrics
little black dress

77

men's fashion of the twenties

exaggeratedly wide flapping trousers known as oxford bags
literary and artistic figures eg cecil beaton had flamboyant style of dress that was not accepted

78

children's fashio in the twenties

miniature versions of the adult fashions , simpler and easy fitting

79

mass entertainment in the twenties

charleston dance - glitter embroidered bodices
cinema where people copied the outfits

80

popular cruises in the thirties

swimwear - introduction of the 2 piece swimming costume

81

sportswear of the thirties

designed to cater for the functional needs of the sport rather than modifying basic day styles

82

foxes in the thirties

fur trimming was popular, pair of foxes worn as accessories

83

name an influential designer of the thirties and why they were innovative

schiaparelli - use of the zip fastener in haute couture

84

what was schiaparelli influenced by

surrealistic art eg by salvador dali
as shown by shocking pink

85

cinema stars who were admired for their fashion in the thirties

greta garbo and marlene dietrich

86

children's clothes in the thirties

girl's outfits looked less like miniature versions of women's fashions - dresses cut like a long button through shirt were popular

87

men's fashion in the thirties

inspired by the filmstars and sportsmen in the mass media of the time i.e. athletic wide shouldered figure

88

what did balenciaga's silhouette look like in the thirties

hourglass figure, longer skirts

89

siren suits

all in one boiler suits worn by women and children in air raid shelters in ww2

90

impact of ww2 on fashion

clothes and fabrics were rationed from 1941 onwards so make do and mend

91

regulations on clothes in ww2

utility clothes (regulations introduced on the amount of material used and quality eg number of pockets)

92

cc41

clothing control 1941
used in utility clothing

93

british couture designers in the forties who designed special ranges of utility clothes

norman hartnell and digby morton

94

american designers in the forties

american women needed practical clothes and their everyday outfits were based on interchangeable separates - idea began catching on in europe

95

where did special teenage fashions begin in the forties

usa

96

men's fashion in the forties

american fashions dominated
wedge-shaped line: padded shoulders and wide straight trousers

97

demob suit

when men were demobilised at the end of ww2 they were given a poor quality civilian suit

98

dior's new look

1947

99

post war younger generation fashion

ww2
boys: casual t shirts
girls; either v full or v narrow skirts

100

young men's fashion in the forties

duffle coats and army surplus stuff

101

influence of cycling in young women's fashion in the forties

pedal pushers - trousers

102

swimwear in the forties

the first bikini appeared named after the atomic bomb test at bikini atoll

103

what did clothing manufactures focus on in the forties

the youth market
made young looking inexpensive dresses for summer

104

when was nylon discovered and when was it used

discovered in 1929
commercially available in 1940 - used for stockings