Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

Comm 1100 > Unit 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (82):
1

A good humanist theory generates:

A. Agreement among scholars

B. Change

C. Widespread analysis

D. All of the above

D

2

True or False?

Although surveys are of immense help in describing what is happening, they are of no value in validating a theory.

False

3

Which of the following standards of scientists and humanists are somewhat similar?

A. Prediction parallels community of agreement

B. Utility parallels reform

C. Explanation parallels value clarification

D. None of the above

B

4

True or False?

According to Keyton a single, well-conducted research study can answer questions we have about a single issue or topic.

False

5

Which of these concepts is concerned with how truthful the data that are collected in quantitative research are?

A. Reliability

B. Bias

C. Validity

D. Credibility

C

6

___ research uses measurement and observation to represent communication phenomena as amounts, frequencies, degrees, values, or intensity.

Quantitative

7

True or False?

There is not universal agreement about the criteria for good interpretive theory.

True

8

The most common form of textual analysis is...

rhetorical criticism

9

If a researcher systematically varied an independent variable and measured the resulting effect this had on a dependent variable, he or she would be conducting a(n)...

experiment

10

___ research is research that is conducted within an organization for its own purposes.

Proprietary

11

True or False?

Research is not satisfied if there are multiple plausible explanations: a researcher must explore all possible explanations to make sure their findings cannot be disproved.

True

12

True or False?

It is difficult to prove cause-and-effect relationships using the correlation data that surveys yield.

True

13

The twin objectives of scientific knowledge are...

explaining the past and present and predicting the future

14

True or False?

Behavioral scientists experimentally test theories by trying to find ways to refute them.

True

15

Which of these steps are part of the scholarly research process, according to Keyton? (Choose all that apply)

A. Developing research questions/hypothesis before collecting data.

B. Determining the most appropriate research method based on your questions/hypothesis

C. Having others in your field verify the research has been conducted soundly.

A, B, and C

16

When a new and novel research method becomes available, the best practice is to...

Use it only where it happens to be the best method to answer your current questions

17

What is the independent variable in the following proposition?

Among college-aged students, increased engagement with class readings is associated with higher test performance and lower test anxiety.

Engagement with class readings

18

True or False?

In a research study, variables are the elements of interest to the researcher and the thing (or things) that they will focus on in designing data collection.

True

19

The notion that "watching the news has a positive impact on how much people think they know about politics" is an example of a/an ___.

directional hypothesis

20

Which of these concepts is concerned with how truthful the data that are collected in quantitative research are?

A. Validity

B. Bias

C. Reliability

D. Credibility

A

21

Which of these is not a way to improve credibility in quantitative research, according to the reading?

A. Investigator triangulation

B. Data triangulation

C. Interdisciplinary triangulation

D. All of these are ways to improve credibility

D

22

Researchers using interpretive methods are more likely to utilize ___ research methods.

qualitative

23

For interactionalists, what is required in order for the self to develop?

social interaction

24

The tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated is called...

self-fulfilling prophecy

25

Symbolic interactionalism has been faulted because...

it may overstate the importance of language to personhood.

26

According to interaction adaptation theory, we ___ when the behavior of the other person is more negative than we expected.

diverge

27

True or False?

Personal space is context sensitive and culturally dependent. 

True

28

Which of these is not a way of interpreting meaning in qualitative data?

A. Contingent accuracy

B. Researcher construction

C. External validity

D. Subjective valuing

C

29

True or False?

Qualitative research methods are typically interested in searching for social meaning by generating numeric data. 

False

30

According to Mead, humans have a unique capacity to...

take the role of the other

31

An inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse action, and anticipate reactions before overtly responding is called...

minding

32

True or False?

Mead believed that society was based on symbolic naming.

True

33

True or False?

There is no "me" at birth

True

34

In expectancy violations theory, what triggers the perception of a violation?

When someone does not meet our social expectations

35

What is the major difference between expectancy violation theory and interaction adaptation theory?

IAT takes into account both communicators and change over time

36

According to interaction adaptation theory, ___ is when we adjust our behavior to match the other person's actual behavior.

Convergence

37

True or False?

The depth of self-disclosure often increases dramatically in the final stages of relationship deterioration

True

38

The threshold above which an outcome seems attractive is called the...

comparison level

39

The degree of intimacy reflected in a person's discourse is called the...

depth of self-disclosure

40

True or False?

Walther failed to confirm his theory through experimental testing.

False

41

Through selective self-presentation, people will always lie and distort their impression to others. 

False

42

True or False?

SIP theory suggests that there is a 4-to-1 ratio of how long it takes to communicate social information via CMC compared to face-to-face.

True

43

What is the key facter that deteremines whether a CMC user's message achieves the level of intimacy that others develop face-to-face?

Length of time

44

Whenever Simon comes home, his roommate Paul is always there to greet him and ask how his day was. What is this according to SPT?

It depends - it may be either a reward or a cost based on Simon's assessment.

45

True or False?

Experiences that take place early in a relationship will have relatively little impact on the relationship until it is well established.

False

46

True or False?

According to Altman, disclosing one's self is an entirely verbal process.

False

47

True or False?

The rate of social penetration will depend on the surplus of rewards over cost.

True

48

49

True or False?

The hyperpersonal perspectivee explicitly predicts possible negative relational outcomes associated with CMC.

False

50

True or False?

Based on CMC's asynchronous quality, users can send and receive messages nonsimultaneously.

True

51

True or False?

Social information processing theory focuses on the personal information available through CMC and the effects on relational development without addressing impression formation.

False

52

A main focus of Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory is...

self-disclosure, the path to intimacy

53

Social penetration theory has been criticized beacuse...

it equates self-disclosure with relational closeness

54

True or False?

According to Altman, disclosing one's self is an entirely verbal process.

False

55

Which cue is the nonverbal cue that's not filtered out in CMC?

Chronemics

56

True or False?

Based on the lack of a central explanatory mechanism, Walther's four-factor model is best labeled a perspective rather than a theory.

True

57

True or False?

CMC stands for computer-mediated communication

True

58

True or False?

SIP theory suggests that there is a 4-to-1 ratio of how long it takes to communicate information via CMC compared to face-to-face.

True

59

Which of the following is NOT one of the factors Petronio explicitly suggests affects our privacy rules?

A. Risk/benefit ratio

B. Motivation

C. Family background

D. Culture

C

60

True or False?

Boundary turbulence is the result of failed coordination.

True

61

CPM is a rules-based theory. What does this mean?

It tries to discern why individuals make the choices they do.

62

Overall, CPM nicely fulfills the standards for an interpretive theory. Which standard does Griffin contend is not as well met by Petronio?

Aesthetic appeal

63

True or False?

Once someone becomes a co-owner of disclosed information, each party should have equal say in how the information is managed.

False

64

True or False?

One indication of high ego-involvement is an extremeley narrow latitude of non-commitment.

True

65

Steve is a card-carrying member of Opportunity International, an organization that provides opportunities for people in chronic poverty through small business loans. This would suggest that he has ___ on the issue of helping the poor.

high ego-involvement

66

True or False?

Two people who locate a particular statement at the same position on a continuum might differ considerably around that point.

True

67

Turbulence results from which of the following situations?

 

A. Lizzy knows Betty would rather people didn't know she has a crush on Greg, but she thinks if he knew, Greg might reciprocate Betty's feelings.

B. Lizzy is unsre exactly what she can and can't share about Betty's crush on Greg.

C. Lizzy tells Betty's roommate Jess about the crush, she thought she already knew.

D. All of the above

D

68

What does co-ownership mean?

Because it is irrevocable, one should carefully consider the desire to share information.

69

When a recipient agrees to allow the original owner of private information to make decisions regarding further disclosure and control, which terms does Petronio use to describe the confidant?

Shareholder

70

True or False?

Petronio's CPM represents a theory-in-process as it is still being developed.

True

71

Sherif warns that because of the boomerang effect, ___.

 

messages aimed to persuade the highly ego-involved may have an effect oppositve of what was intended.

72

Dogmatic people generally have:

A. Wide latitudes of acceptance

B. Wide latitudes of rejection

C. Narrow latitudes of rejection

D. Wide latitudes of non-commitment

B

73

To persuade a person who has high ego-involvement, advocate:

 

A. Small shifts in position inside their latitude of rejection

B. Small shifts in position inside their latitude of non-commitment

C. Large shifts in position inside their latitude of rejection

D. None of the above

D

74

Sherif calls the perception that a message within the latitude of rejection is more discrepant from the anchor point than it actually is:

contrast

75

True or False?

The way to achieve significant change in a high ego-involved person is through a series of small, successive steps.

True

76

___ is the study of people's use of space as an expression of culture.

Proxemics

77

After a violation, after we determine whether or not we like it, the resulting feeling is the ___.

violation valence

78

___ is the degree of confidence that some information is accurate.

Warrant

79

When we hear a message that does not fit our belief exactly, it motivates a(n) ___.

evaluation

80

The ___ is the range of ideas that one sees as neither acceptable nor objectionable.

latitude of noncommitment

81

___ do not want the disclosure and they feel burdened by the information.

Reluctant confidants.

82

Self-disclosure is ___ meaning once something is revealed it cannot be taken back. This makes it easy to return to the same intimacy level at a later time.

directional