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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (38):
1

If the central route is followed, the enhanced thinking of those who respond favorably to the message will cause their change in position to:

A. Resist counterpersuasion

B. Predict future behavior

C. Persist over time

D. All of the above

D

2

Which of the following is used in peripheral processing?

A. Social proof

B. Consistency

C. Scarcity

D. All of the above

D

3

Messages that generate favorable thoughts when heard and scrutinized are:

 

strong messages

4

Paul Mongeau and James Stiff claim that ELM:

A. Cannot be falsified

B. Has not stimulated further research

C. Does not explain why people often pay more attention to the communicator than to the message.

D. All of the above

A

5

True or False?

The amount of dissonance a person experiences is inversely related to the effort invested in the behavior.

False

6

According to Festinger's minimal justification hypothesis, the best way to affect long-term attitudinal change is to:

 

persuade your subjects to change their behavior, and their attitudes will follow

7

According to Festinger, the $1/$20 experiment illustrates:

dissonace is created by a person doing something for a smaller reward.

8

According to the Media Equation, which phrase best identifies how people respond to computers, television, and new media?

Fundamentally socially and naturally

9

True or False?

According to the media equation, people rarely think about movie characters as if they were real people.

False

10

True or False?

The bulk of persuasive messages are processed through the peripheral route.

True

11

The cognitive processing route that involves message elaboration is called the:

A. Peripheral route

B. Diffuse route

C. Direct route

D. Central route

D

12

Having run his own $1/$20 experiment, Daryl Bem argues that:

A. Aronson's contributions to the theory are suspect.

B. Self-perception is a simpler explanation of the observed behavior than is cognitive dissonance. 

C. Festinger's basic hypothesis remains sound.

D. Recent assertions about self-perception enhance the minimal justification hypothesis.

B

13

Which phrase best sums up the media equation?

A. People respond to media as if it were real.

B. Media are similar to chemical substances in terms of their addictive potential.

C. For each media message we consume the real world seems more like the mediated world.

D. People use cost benefit calculations when selecting media. 

A

14

True or False?

Motivation and ability strongly increase the likelihood that a message will be elaborated in the minds of listeners.

True

15

True or False?

Quicker decisions can be made using the peripheral route than the central route.

True

16

Which of the following cues is used in peripheral processing?

A. Scarcity

B. Consistency

C. Social proof

D. All of the above

D

17

True or False?

The amount of dissonance a person experiences is inversely related to the effort invested in the behavior.

False

18

True or False?

Cognitive dissonance is not prompted by threats or punishments, only by promises or rewards.

False

19

According to the media equation, what is the name of the principle that explains humans' bias to evaluate negative experiences more strongly than positive experiences?

Law of hedonic asymmetry

20

According to the media equation, which phrase best describes proactive enhancement?

A. Negativity increases our memory of subsequent events

B. Negativity makes use more likely to be positive as a counter measure 

C. People who ruminate upon negative event are more emotionally stable

D. People who proactively stifle negativity have better memory

A

21

For Aristotle, metaphor was a key component of ___.

style

22

The canon of rhetoric that includes topoi is ___.

invention

23

Early Athenian public speaking professors whose practical approach lakced a theoretical foundation were called ___.

Sophists

24

True or False?

Metaphor is an important component of the canon of invention.

False

25

What is a drawback of applying utilitarianism to media creation?

A. It creates media that are not enjoyable because they are too ethical

B. Its abstractness makes it very difficult to apply to media

C. It ignores the needs of fringe groups because it aims to appeal only to mainstream audiences.

D. It cannot be applied to media creation.

C

26

Which phrase best describes the categorical imperative?

A. The best actions do not affect other people

B. The best actions promote the greatest general happiness

C. The best actions are the ones that could become universal law.

D. The best actions promote the greatest personal happiness.

C

27

Referring to the trolley dilemma, which action would consequentialism endorse?

A. Rewarding someone who allows 5 people to die rather than choosing to kill one person.

B. Punishing someone who kills one person to save the lives of 5 others.

C. Choose to kill 1 person to save the lives of 5 others.

D. Allow 5 people to die rather than choose to kill one person.

C

28

Why do very ethical products like PeaceMaker lack success?

 

They make people feel unintelligent, unethical, or bored.

29

Which of the following is a major drawback to making a mainstream, ethical product.

A. Ethical products are uncommon so people do not know what types of ethical products that they like.

B. Ethical products cannot make enough money to sustain the product.

C. Ethics are localized so it is impossible to make globally-minded, ethical products

D. It is difficult to stand out because the competition is strong.

D

30

What ultimately happened to the game RapeLay?

 

The EOCS banned the sale and production of the game.

31

True or False?

McLuhan proposed that we have entered the digital age.

False

32

According to Barthes, all semiological systems are mythic.

False

33

True or False?

The dominant medium of any age shapes its people.

True

34

Semiotics is concerned with everything:

A. that has potential symbolic significance

B. that can be taken as a sign

C. that actually exists, whether natural or artificial

D. All of the above

D

35

Griffin uses the example of the yellow ribbon to:

A. Argue that some signs are nonmythic

B. Illustrate a second-order semiological system

C. Suggest that new symbols arise everyday

B

36

A sign =

signifier + signified

37

Hall's brand of cultural studies has been criticized because:

 

Its strong ideological component limits its credibility

38

True or False?

Marxist scholars are dedicated to empowering those who are marginalized in society.

True