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Flashcards in Unit 1 Quiz Deck (30)
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1

What is developmental psychology?

Scientific study of the changes that occur over time in an individuals:
- thoughts
- behaviours
- reasoning
- functioning

2

Types of studies psychologists in this field do

- nature vs. nurture
- child psychology (learning, interacting)
- lifespan developments
- patterns of behaviour

3

Psychodynamic

your subconscious; memories and thoughts

4

Behavioural

learn by watching others; outcomes or rewards and punishments

5

Humanistic

needs and desires; personal growth

6

Evolutionary

survival instincts; natural selection

7

Cognitive

mental process; how one processes information or perceives situations, storage and recollection of thoughts

8

Sociocultural

influence of community (family, school, etc.)

9

6 stages of development

1. preconception/birth
2. infancy (0-2)
3. early childhood (2-6)
4. middle childhood (6-12)
5. adolescence
6. adulthood

10

Development is not caused simply by age- explain.

- maturation and experience are the main causes
- development requires the correct environment, experiences and teaching, and biological ability

11

Levels of environment that influence development

Physical: biological influences impacting an individual
Social: interactions/experiences; e.g. methods of discipline used by parents, peer influence

12

Developmental changes occur because of the influences from...

- biological changes (physical)
- individual changes (cognitive)
- environmental experiences

13

Nature vs. Nurture Question

The question of whether nature or nurture is more influential in human development

14

Areas of interest in the field of psychology?

- lifespan developments
- patterns of growth, change, stability, and others related to behaviour

15

What do psychologists do in working with people?

- research children (observe, how they play, how they change)
- work in the community (with parenting groups, support groups for parents with children who have special needs)
- work with teachers (those who teach children with special needs or learning disabilities)
- work with social welfare groups (involved with legal issues)

16

Lifespan Perspective: Lifelong

no age period dominates development

17

Lifespan Perspective: Multidimensional

development occurs biologically, emotionally, and spiritually

18

Lifespan Perspective: Multidirectional

some aspects of development increase while others decrease

19

Lifespan Perspective: Changing

depending on the individual's life conditions, development may take many paths

20

Lifespan Perspective: Historically embedded

development is influenced by historical conditions (behaviour of parents during gestation, genetics, etc.)

21

Lifespan Perspective: Multidisciplinary

several scientific areas of study are involved in understanding development throughout the lifespan

22

Lifespan Perspective: Contextual

depending on the context of the influence (biological make-up, physical environment, social context, historical or culture context)

23

Explain which of Nature and Nurture are more significant in the development of an individual

Both are essential, and they cooperate in two ways:
1. there must be the right nature sources in order for nurture experiences to accomplish development
2. the right learning environment will be wasted on biology that has not reached the right age

24

Influences of nature

- biological factors
- maturation stages
- traits, abilities, capacities inherited from parents
- any factor produced by predetermined genetic info

25

Influences of nurture

- education
- stimulated environment
- nutrition
- physical activities
- social influences
- values
- personality
~ physical and social environment

26

Example of Nature vs. Nurture study

Toilet training: whether nature or nurture determines success/age of success

27

How are identical twins different from fraternal twins?

Identical twins started as one fertilized egg which then split and developed into two fetuses, with nearly identical genetic codes. Fraternal twins result when two separate eggs are fertilized by two separate sperm, and have different genetic codes.

28

Describe ways identical twins may differ from birth

physical environment influences; e.g. medical issues, size of womb, condition of mother

29

Explain why scientists previously believed it was beneficial to separate identical twins

helped them to become more fully developed individuals, improved psychological development

30

Define epigenetics, and its effect in twins

- turns genes "off" or "on" without changing the underlying genetic code
- when twins are born and through their early years their environments are commonly very similar, but as they age different environmental factors can "activate" or "silence" different genes