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1

Heredity

Process of transmitting biological traits from parents to offspring through genes

2

Genetics

The study of heredity and how genes work

3

Chromosomes

- 23 pairs
- 22 are the same (autosomes)
- 1 pair are sex chromosomes (Females=XX Males=XY)

4

Amniocentesis

- done between 12-16 weeks
- sample of amniotic fluid taken by syringe
- tests for chromosomal or metabolic disorders

5

Ultrasound Sonography

- high frequency sound waves direction into abdomen
- echo is transformed into visual image of fetus's inner structures
- 3D and 4D imagery

6

Chorionic villus test

- small sample of placenta is removed
- 8-11 weeks

7

Maternal blood test

- diagnostic test to assess neural tube defects
- administered at 14-20 weeks only if at risk for defects in the formation of brain/spinal cord

8

Why would someone go for genetic testing?

- possibility of hereditary disorder is high in family history
- you or your partner are over 37 years old (quality of eggs deteriorates)
- prenatal ultrasound indicates a risk of a birth defect

9

Gamete

- sex cell
- male = sperm
- female = egg
- one set of chromosomes

10

Zygote

- fertilized egg cell
- 2 sets of chromosomes
- divides up to holding 150 cells inside
- lasts for 14 days (2 weeks)
- after 2 weeks, it implants into the uterus wall (confirmed pregnancy)

11

Blastocyst

- stage after zygote
- inner mass of cells
- fertilized egg cell
- cell division where the cells become types
- becomes yolk sac, fetus, and amniotic sac

12

Trophoblast

- external part of egg (outer layer)
- grows into uterus lining

13

In Vitro Fertilization

- ova are surgically removed from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in the lab
- divide until the 16 or 32 cell stage
- cells inserted into uterus
- implants to uterine wall
- 1 in 7 are successfully implanted to become healthy baby/just under 20% success rate

14

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)

- gamete is a haploid reproductive cell, either egg or sperm
- doctor inserts unfertilized eggs and sperm directly into woman's fallopian tube
- success rate is almost 30%

15

Intrauterine (artificial) Insemination (I.U.I.)

- frozen sperm placed directly into uterus (passes cervix and upper vagina)
- naturally seeks egg
- success rate is 10%

16

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)

- egg fertilized in lab
- zygote then transferred to Fallopian tube
- success rate is 25%

17

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

- doctor uses microscopic instrument to inject a single sperm into the egg in a lab (selection based on high mobility, health, form)
- zygote returned to woman's body
- success rate is 25%

18

Ovum Donation (2)

- woman volunteers to be a surrogate mother, artificially inseminated with sperm from an infertile woman's husband and carries baby to term
- woman volunteers her eggs to be removed, artificially inseminated, and inserted into another woman's uterus

19

Key features doctors look for at 8 weeks?

- heartbeat
- size
- movement

20

What is sperm washing?

Separates healthy sperm (heavier/denser) from white blood cells, mucous, seminal fluid, dead sperm, and slow moving sperm

21

Difficulties sperm must overcome to fertilize an egg?

- acidic atmosphere of the vagina
- narrowness of uterotubal junction (entrance to cervix)
- white blood cells see sperm as pathogenic "foreign invaders"

22

Uterus

Fluid filled sac where fetus develops

23

Amniotic sac

Soft lining of uterus; amniotic fluid is fluid the fetus grows in inside the womb

24

Cervix

Neck of uterus, joins with vagina; strong muscles; dilates to allow baby to pass during birth

25

Placenta

Exchange of metabolic product; provides nutrients to fetus

26

Umbilical cord

Connect to placenta

27

Afterbirth

Placenta and amniotic sac expelled from mother's body

28

Fontanelles

Parts of the skull that move temporarily

29

Leboyer Method

- intended to make birth less stressful for the infant
- baby is placed on mother's stomach after birth, and then placed in a warm bath to relax

30

Lamaze Method

- mother copes with pain of childbirth through relaxation and breathing techniques, avoiding or reducing medication

31

Cesarean section

- surgical removal of the baby from stomach
- performed if there are complications
- 5 minutes to remove baby, 45 minutes for remainder of surgery, 6-8 weeks recovery time

32

Water birth

- woman delivers in warm water (tub or kid's pool)
- midwives usually assist

33

Precipitate delivery

- delivery takes place too quickly (less than ten minutes to pass)
- disturbance of normal flow of blood and pressure on head can cause hemorrhaging

34

Anoxia

- insufficient supply of oxygen to infant if delivery takes too long
- causes include cord around neck, sedative given to mother reaching fetus, mucous in baby's throat, breeched presentation during birth
- cause poor reflexes, heart rate irregularities
- mild anoxia may make babies irritable, delay motor/cognitive development, but lead no permanent problems
- severe anoxia may lead to brain damage, cerebral palsy, or death

35

Placenta Previa

- placenta blocks natural birth canal
- three degrees: marginal, complete, partial
- causes: abnormal uterus, multiple previous pregnancies, multiple pregnancies, scarring of uterine wall from caesarean or abortion
- may cause death to fetus and mother, major bleeding or shock to mother

36

Breech

- baby positioned bum first at birth
- may become stuck or compress umbilical cord causing oxygen loss
- 90-95% of deliveries done by Caesarean section

37

Meconium aspiration

- infant's first feces passed in the womb or during delivery, baby may inhale a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid that blocks airways
- usually occurs with "gasps" as a result of delivery complications

38

Stage 1 of birth

- 12-24 hours
- contractions (15-20 min apart to 2-5 min apart)
- cervix dilates to 8-10 cm

39

Stage 2 of birth

- head moves through cervix and birth canal; stage ends when baby passes from mother's body
- contractions (almost every minute and last a minute) help pass baby out
- 1 and a half hours (on average)

40

Stage 3 of birth

- afterbirth expelled from mother's body
- placenta, umbilical cord, other membranes
- lasts only minutes

41

PKU

- inherited genetic condition
- trouble breaking down sugar in body
- child smells "sour"
- learning disabilities

42

Hemophilia

- inherited blood disorder
- cannot clot blood normally
- can be around joints and internally
- life threatening

43

Club foot

- potentially inherited
- ankles and feet point inward, tendons constricting
- surgery to correct, casts for healing
- more common in girls, more severe in boys

44

Cleft palate

- incomplete formation of lip/roof of mouth
- sucking (for milk) is impossible without corrective surgery
- failure to develop, not genetic

45

Cystic fibrosis

- inherited genetic disorder
- thick mucous excreted internally (breathing, digestion)
- affect reproduction system as well
- no cure

46

Spina Bifida

- spinal column exposed during development
- parts of the nervous system undeveloped

47

Notochord

- cylinder of cells in the mesoderm that extends along the entire length of the body, which send a molecular signal that causes cells to thicken into the neural plate; signal sent so tissues do their job

48

Neural Plate

Folds into neural tube

49

Somites

Mesoderm divides into structures called somites which are the beginnings of musculature and the skeleton

50

Myelin

Insulation layer of fat in the neuron (fatty tissue that surrounds axons)

51

Stage 1 of brain development

- production of neurons
- most neurons produced between 10-26 weeks after conception
- generated at 250 000/minute
- likely that at birth they will have generated all the neurons they will ever have

52

Stage 2 of brain development

- neurons move (cell migration)
- cells move from the centre of the brain (where they are produced) to their appropriate location
- completed by 7 months

53

Stage 3 of brain development

- neurons mature and form connections (cell elaboration)
- axons and dendrites grow, forming connections with other cells
- continues many years after birth

54

Stage 4 of brain development

- speed and energy
- throughout
- myelination begins prenatally, continues after birth
- increases speed of information which travels though nervous system

55

Describe how the brain forms

- nervous system begins as a hollow tube on the embryo back that forms into the brain as a mass of neurons, losing the tubular appearance
- brain divides into three parts
- begins to develop at 18 days after fertilization
- continues to develop after birth

56

Cerebrum

Processing, logic, senses

57

Cerebellum

Balance, coordination

58

Brain stem

Automatic functions

59

Forebrain

Large part of brain; critical in thinking and language

60

Midbrain

Between hind and forebrain; relays info to eyes and ears

61

Hindbrain

Lowest portion of brain; controls motor development

62

Ratio of brain-to-body size

9 weeks - 25% of body weight
Birth - 10% of body weight
Adulthood - 2% of body weight

63

Birth order - first born

- logical
- knowledgable
- smarter on average
- better educated
- earn more money
- favourites

64

Birth order - middle born

- diplomatic
- rebellious
- competitive
- can be confusing, depends on how long they were the last born
- peacekeepers
- less decisive, trouble making decisions
- less connected to family members

65

Birth order - last born

- risk takers
- extreme activities
- sensitive
- more adventurous
- more agreeable
- hard workers

66

Extroversion

- tendency to be outgoing, assertive, active
- like attention
- talkative

67

Agreeableness

- tendency to be kind, helpful, easy-going
- social
- friendly, pleasant
- easy to be around

68

Conscientiousness

- tendency to be organized, deliberate, and conforming (followers)
- disciplined, dedicated
- loyal
- hardworking
- committed to standards

69

Neuroticism

- tendency to be moody, anxious, and self-punishing
- emotionally unstable
- depression

70

Openness

- tendency to be imaginative, curious, artistic, and welcoming of new experiences
- insightful
- loves risks

71

Infant personality - Activity level

- some babies are very active
- kick a lot in uterus, move around a lot in crib, always running as toddlers

72

Infant personality - Rhythmicity

- some babies have regular rhythms of activity
- eat, sleep, dirty their diaper, etc. on a regular schedule almost from birth

73

Infant personality - Approach, Withdraw

- some babies delight in everything new, while others withdraw from things that are new

74

Infant personality - Adaptability

- some babies are quick to adjust to changes, while others are unhappy from every disruption in their routine

75

Infant personality - Threshold of responsiveness

- some babies sense every sight, sound, and touch; awake at the slightest noises or turn away from a distant light
- others are blissfully unaware, even of bright, loud, or wet sensations

76

Infant personality - Quality of mood

- some babies are constantly happy, smiling at almost everything
- others seem chronically unhappy, ready to protest to everything

77

Infant personality - Distractibility

- all babies fuss when hungry, but some will stop if given a pacifier or are sung a song, while others keep fussing
- some babies can be easily distracted from dangerous objects to play with safer ones
- some babies are more single minded, refusing to be distracted

78

Infant personality - Attention span

- some babies play happily with a toy for a long time, while others quickly drop one activity for another

79

Infant personality - Intensity

- some babies react with moderation, while others react with great energy

80

Microsystem

- first level of influence; family, peers, school, community, etc.
- closest influence of the mother's role in promoting healthy development
- strongest effect on the fetus

81

Exosystem

- second level of influence; neighbours, mass media, social welfare
- community role in fetal development
- services influencing fetal development may include health agencies, support of friends/neighbours, communities, the school (sex ed, healthy living, education for teen mothers)

82

Macrosystems

- most removed level of influence; province, country, governments economics, culture, etc.
- economic and political culture
- women of lower economic status are more likely to have poor health, be malnourished, teenaged when pregnant, and stress

83

Exposure before pregnancy

- smoking before pregnancy increases risks of miscarriage, sudden death syndrome, premature birth, and low birth weight

84

Exposure during early pregnancy

- development of the fetal brain occurs in specific steps at particular times of development
- exposure to nicotine alters this process for areas of the brain
- depending on stage of fetal development, nicotine exposure can reduce the number of neurons in a brain region, and change the way neurons signal to other neurons

85

Exposure during late pregnancy

- early prenatal care reduces fetal brain damage substantially
- because the last trimester is critical for brain development, a drug-free second half may be enough to prevent damage if the drug use occurred during the first half

86

Teratogens

- substances/environmental agents which cause the development of abnormal cell masses during fetal growth, resulting in defects
- influences may disturb development of the embryo or fetus, depending on when exposure occurs, may have more significant effects
- effects accumulate throughout pregnancy

87

Physical teratogens

- influences from the external environment of the mother
- hypothermia, x-rays

88

Infectious teratogens

- infection viruses of the mother that pass onto the baby
- HIV, mumps, STIs

89

Chemical teratogens

- chemical agents the mother ingests or uses
- drugs, alcohol, food additives, environmental chemicals, pollutants

90

Moderation throughout pregnancy (drugs, etc.)

- effects of psychoactive drugs are related to doses
- each reduction in exposure represents a reduction in potential brain damage

91

Social support (drugs, etc.)

- maternal stress, loneliness, and poor housing correlate with prenatal complications

92

Post-natal care (drugs, etc.)

- another way to protect children from the consequence's of a mother's drug use is to ensure nurturing through parenting education, preventative medicine, home visits, early daycare, even foster care

93

Effect of teratogens on brain development

May cause
- stroke
- premature labour
- brain swelling
- small head size

94

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- kills neurons
- causes facial deformities
- stunted growth
- mental disablement
- sensory deficiencies
- learning problems
- neurological problems (nerves)

95

Microsystem - supports and dangers

Supports: information, emotional support
Dangers; bad influences (drugs/alcohol), violent environment (domestic abuse)

96

Exosystem - supports and dangers

Supports: emotional support of community, social groups/interactions (baby classes, yoga for mothers)
Dangers: shunning/ostracism, poor options available to mothers

97

Macrosystem - supports and dangers

Supports: healthcare, born into healthier economic rates (more often than not in Canada), childcare
Dangers: pregnant women can still smoke in some countries, forced sterilization

98

Spontaneous abortion

- occurs before 20 weeks viability
- nonviable fetus and placenta expelled from body
- estimated that almost every woman experiences at least one miscarriage
- 25-50% of all conceptions result in miscarriage
- highest risk period is between 4-6 weeks

99

Spontaneous abortion - causes

- chromosomal defects (fetus)
- hormone imbalance (fetus/mother)
- bad immune system
- severe infection
- defects of uterus

100

Spontaneous abortion - risk factors

- increasing maternal age
- drinking
- smoking
- STIs
- diabetes
- infections
- hormonal imbalance
- lack of nutritious food

101

Ectopic pregnancy

- ectopic means "out of place"
- also known as tubal pregnancy
- happens outside uterus where fetus cannot grow
- 1/250 pregnancies
- as fetus continues to grow it will eventually outgrow organ it is inside, causing it to rupture
- massive bleeding resulting in reduced fertility or death
- initial symptoms similar to early pregnancy, leads to severe stabbing pain on one side of pelvis and usually fainting

102

Ectopic pregnancy - causes

- condition may block or slow movement of fertilized egg through Fallopian tube to uterus
- physical blockage/damage of tube
- hormones
- smoking
- ruptured appendix
- scarring from previous surgery
- being over 35 years old
- inflammation of tubes related to STIs

103

Ectopic pregnancy - treatment

1. Drugs that break down material of fetus
2. (Surgery 1) removal of the fetus and partial removal of Fallopian tube, reduced fertility
3. (Surgery 2) removal of entire Fallopian tube and fetus, 50% reduction in fertility

104

Low birth weight

- babies born under 5 and a half pounds
- have life long health problems
- slower development
- main reason of babies who die in the 1st year
- need extra hospital care

105

Low birth weight babies are at a greater risk of...

- learning difficulties
- vision problems
- chronic respiratory problems like asthma
- cerebral palsy (nervous system/motor skills problems)

106

LBW causes - multiple pregnancies

- considered high risk, watched closely
- 55% of multiple births are LBW

107

LBW causes - maternal poverty

- pregnant women with low economic status more likely to be ill, malnourished, stressed, teenagers
- late or inadequate prenatal care
- polluted air, overcrowded conditions, move from place to place, ingest unhealthy substances, less access to family planning services, live in area where higher birth rates are encouraged

108

LBW causes - maternal malnutrition

- begin pregnancy underweight, eat poorly during pregnancy, do not gain 1.5kg/month in 2nd and 3rd trimester
- obese women should gain 7-11kg total
- normal weight women should gain 11-16kg
- underweight even more
- nutrients like zinc, iron, folic acid protect against low birth weight
- young teen mothers tend to have small babies because of nutrition, not age

109

LBW causes - preterm birth

- if baby is born before usual 38 weeks they are likely to have low birth weight
- conditions may change physical equilibrium of mother such as high doses of psychoactive drugs, extreme stress, chronic exhaustion, detached placenta, uterus cannot accommodate more growth, unusually short cervix

110

Full term gestation - average weights

Single - 38 weeks - 6 1/2 lbs
Twins - 36 weeks - 5 1/2 lbs
Triplets - 33 weeks - 4 lbs
Quadruplets 31 weeks - 3 lbs

111

Germinal period

- weeks 1 to 2
- rapid cell division
- beginning of cell differentiation
- implantation of blastocyst into uterine wall
- cells differentiate into two layers; blastocyst and trophoblast

112

Embryonic period

- 2 to 8 weeks after conception
- major organs and structures develop
- embryo, placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac develop
- three layers to embryo (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm)
- exposure to drugs/viruses can cause congenital abnormalities
- major organs working at end, heart and circulation

113

Fetal period

- 2 months to 9 months
- 10 to 20 weeks growth in length
- 21 to 40 weeks growth in weight

114

Full term gestation

37 to 42 weeks

115

At what month/week can external genitalia be seen on scans?

8 weeks/2 months

116

What month does mother begin feeling interaction from the fetus?

4 months

117

Aspects unique to fetal stage

- fetus puts on body weight
- fetus hiccups, swallows, etc.
- lungs develop enough to breathe air
- reacts to stimulus (noises, light)
- external sex organs can be seen

118

Gastrulation

- cell differentiation, types of tissues for human body begin
- blastocyst begins to fold in on itself to create three tissue layers
- new types of cells begin doing their work, pulling tissue to locations that form earliest stage of body

119

Neurulation

- formation of nervous system
- around 3rd week, notochord sends molecular signal that causes cells of ectoderm to thicken into neural plate
- neural plate begins to curve, forming neural tube
- mesoderm thickens and divides into somites
- endoderm reduces in size, placenta takes over job of providing nutrients
- neural tube grows into the spinal cord, the structures of the brain

120

CNS

- brain and spinal cord
- everything centers around the CNS

121

Neural tube defects

- second most common congenital anomaly in USA
- can go 19-20 weeks without realizing pregnancy