Unit 1 Viticulture- The Vine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Viticulture- The Vine Deck (53):
1

What is the function of the roots?

Absorb water and nutrients, store carbohydrates to allow winter survival, anchor the vine

2

What part of the vine stores CHO?

Trunk and arms

3

What is the difference between prompt and dormant buds?

Prompt buds break in the same year they are formed, and dormant buds break the following spring

4

How can you determine the nutrient requirements of a vine?

Petiole (leaf stalk) analysis

5

What are tendrils?

Tendrils search out trellis wires and wind around them, enabling shoots to stay upright

6

What natural factor can result in low fruit set?

Too much rain or wind during flowering which can blow away the pollen

7

What is wood ripening?

When CHO are stored in canes to provide energy for the following year, after version and before ripening

8

What is the result of shoots being destroyed by spring frost at bud burst?

Secondary buds will grow but are much less fruitful

9

What is coulure ?

Failure of fruit set

10

How are vines treated in the first two to three years of growth?

The vine grows its trunk and permanent wood, the vine must focus on vegetative growth, so bunches are usually removed, the root system is established

11

Why can the first few crops from a vine be very high quality?

The trunk and arms are thin, the CHO reserves are low, which limits the vigour of shoot growth. This results in a very good fruit to leaf balance and well exposed fruit.

12

What happens to the vine between 7 and 20 years?

- Permanent wood thickens (but less and less)
-Canopy needs to be managed to avoid excessive shading
- Potential yields are the highest
-Quality drops after the first few years

13

What happens to the vine after 20 years?

- Declining vigor
-Fruit to leaf balance is restored to early year levels but yield declines
- The grower may replant, or may be used as old vines

14

What are the 4 main criteria to consider when selecting vines?

1. Adaptation to climate
2. Resistance to disease
3. Adaptation to soil conditions
4. Economic characteristics (High yield, mechanization high quality)

15

Where are interspecific hybrids forbidden?

Most ofEurope

16

What are interspecific hybrid varietals?

Crosses of one vinifera varietal with another

17

What are some examples of interspecific hybrid varietals?

Muller-Thurgau, Alicante Bouschet

18

What is mass selection and why is it no longer used?

Passing through vineyard before harvest and marking the best plants from which to take cuttings, not done due to necessity of grafting instead of taking cuttings and success of cloning

19

What is cloning?

Plants originating from a single parent propagated vegetatively by cuttings and therefore genetically identical

20

On what was clonal selection first carried out on?

Silvaner in Germany

21

What is the difference between clonal selection and mass selection?

With clonal selection only a handful (<10) of plants are selected and propagated extensively, whereas mass selection results in poly-clonal populations

22

What 7 factors are used to select clones?

1. Yield (fertility, berry size)
2. Sugar concentration
3. Phenolic constituents
4. Resistance to disease and draught
5. Freedom of viral infection
6. Ease of grafting
7. Cost

23

What are the 4 disadvantages of clonal selection?

1. Disease spreads easily
2. Clones are very specialized to certain regions/styles of wine
3. Leads to increase in yield/overproduction
4. Led to reduction in vine genetic resources

24

Are GM vines available for use in commercial vineyards?

No

25

What is layering?

When vine canes are buried in the ground then separated from the parent plant once they have established their own roots

26

What two species are difficult to root from cuttings and benefit from layering?

V. Berlandieri
V. rotundifolia

27

Why are vines not grown from seeds?

Propagation from cuttings is easier, allows for grafting on phylloxera resistant rootstock, it is difficult to predict characteristics of plants grown from seeds

28

What is the best time to take cuttings?

Autumn or early winter when CHO reserves are high

29

How are cuttings treated after taken from the parent vine?

30-45 cm long, bundled, labelled, stored at 5C prior to grafting, they can be heat treated by placing them at 50C for 30 min in order to rid them of pests and nematodes, if they are not grafted they can be planted right away

30

How do you grow cuttings successfully?

-Lots of water
-Keep them warm (15-25C)
-Use loose well drained soil that has good aeration and drainage

31

What is head grafting?

Changing varieties in an established vineyard (just the top and leaving rootstock)

32

What is done in bench grafting?

Bench grafting is indoors, scion is soaked then dipped in paraffin wax and grafted to the root, they are stored in high humidity crates and they join together with a callus of cells. `

33

What is top grafting good for?

Change cultivars in an established vineyard

34

Which type of v. vinifera is used today- silvestris or sativa?

Sativa- good fruit set, large fruit. Sativa eliminated by phylloxera

35

Can v. vinifera be planted ungrafted?

Only in phylloxera free areas, resistance to nematodes is also poor

36

What species is used mostly as a rootstock and have a good resistance to phylloxera but suffer from iron deficiency in chalky soils?

V. Riparia

37

What species is used as a rootstock and susceptible to chlorosis?

V. Rupestris

38

What species is hybridized with riparian and rupestris in order to produce lime resistant rootstocks ?

V. Berlandieri

39

What flavours to lees and age add to chardonnay?

Lees: Yogurt, creaminess, savouriness
Age: Hazelnut, honey, oatmeal, toast

40

What type of fungal disease is chardonnay prone to?

Grey Rot

41

What aromas are typical of a cool climate pinot gris?

Honeyed, nutty, earthy, tropical fruit, spicy, medium acidity

42

What are the two ways "pink pinot grigio" is made?

By taking advantage of the variety's tinted skin or blending a small quantity of red wine

43

How is pinot blanc similar to chardonnay?

On the nose- pear, green apple, citrus, dry, high acid- but generally lighter in body and less complex

44

What does pinot blanc blend with in Alsace?

Auxerrois

45

Why is gewürztraminer usually high alcohol?

It is difficult to achieve flavour ripeness at moderate alcohol levels

46

What muscat variety is usually dry or off dry?

Muscat ottonel

47

What notes can you get from muscat blanc a petit grains?

Grape, peach, floral, orange blossom, rose, spice, medium acidity and usually sweet
- more complex than muscat ottonel or muscat of alexandria

48

Where is muscat ottonel grown?

Alsace and central europe

49

What are three negatives about the muscat grape?

1. Prone to mildew
2. Attracts insects
3. Unless oxidatively aged, wines fade quickly

50

What makes chenin blanc hard to harvest?

It ripens unevenly, resulting in the need to try and avoid unripe/leafy flavours at harvest

51

What does the label fume blanc usually indicate?

Oak aged sauvignon blanc from USA

52

Why is viognier never heavily oaked?

Its flavours are delicate, can easily be lost in oaking

53

Why is it important viognier grapes are neither overripe or underripe?

When ripened too quickly, alcohol levels are too high for level of fruit and can be bitter, unripe viognier is unpleasantly vegetal