Unit 1B - Environment And Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1B - Environment And Evolution Deck (123)
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0
Q

Why have desert animals adapted?

A

To save water and keep cool

1
Q

Organisms can survive in many different environments because they have?

A

Adapted

2
Q

What four ways have desert animals adapted?

A
  1. ) large surface area compared to volume
  2. ) efficient with water
  3. ) good in hot conditions
  4. ) camouflage
3
Q

How does a large surface area compared to volume make an animal adapted for the desert?

A

It lets the desert animals lose more body heat which helps them to stop overheating

4
Q

How are desert animals efficient with water?

A

They lose less water by producing small amounts of concentrated urine, and by making very little sweat

5
Q

How are desert animals adapted to be good in hot conditions?

A

Thin layers of body fat and a thin coat to help them lose body heat

6
Q

How and why are desert animals camouflaged?

A

They are usually a sandy colour to give them a good camouflage, this is to help them avoid predators or sneak up on prey

7
Q

What are arctic animals adapted for?

A

To reduce heat loss

8
Q

What three ways are arctic animals adapted to reduce heat loss?

A
  1. ) small surface area compared to volume
  2. ) well insulated
  3. ) camouflage
9
Q

Why are arctic animals adapted so they have a small surface area compared to volume?

A

To reduce heat loss

10
Q

How are arctic animals well insulated?

A

They have a thick layer of blubber for insulation, thick hairy coats keep body heat in, and greasy fur sheds water preventing cooling due to evaporation?

11
Q

Other than as insulation what else is blubber for in arctic animals?

A

Acts as an energy store when food is scarce

12
Q

How and why are arctic animals camouflaged?

A

They have white fur to camouflage with the snow, this is to avoid predators or to sneak up on prey

13
Q

What are desert plants adapted for?

A

Having little water

14
Q

What three ways are desert plants adapted to survive on only a little bit of water?

A
  1. ) small surface area compared to volume
  2. ) water storage tissues
  3. ) maximise water absorption
15
Q

Why are desert plants adapted to have a small surface area compared to volume?

A

Plants lose water vapour from the surface of their leaves and so a smaller surfaces area means less water lost

16
Q

Why do cacti have spines instead of leaves?

A

To reduce their surface area, which reduces water loss

17
Q

How do desert plants maximise water absorption?

A

Some have shallow but long roots to absorb water quickly over a large area, others have deep roots to access underground water

18
Q

What three ways are some plants and animals adapted to deter predators, give an example of an animal or plant with each?

A
  1. ) some plants and animals have armour - roses and tortoises
  2. ) others produce poisons - bees and poison ivy
  3. ) others have warning colours to scare off predators - wasps
19
Q

What is an extremophile?

A

Microorganisms that have adapted to live in seriously extreme conditions like super hot volcanic vents, in very salty lakes or at high pressure on the sea bed

20
Q

What are microorganism called that are adapted to live in extreme environments?

A

Extremophiles

21
Q

What do plants need from their environment in order to survive and reproduce?

A

Light, space, water and minerals

22
Q

What do animals need from their environment in order to survive and reproduce?

A

Space (territory), food, water and mates

23
Q

The environment in which plants and animals live in changes all the time, what two factors is this due to?

A

Living on non living factors

24
Q

What are the main four living factors that change the environment that plants and animals live in?

A
  1. ) a change in the occurrence of infectious disease
    2) a change in the number of predators
  2. ) a change in the number of prey or food sources
  3. ) a change in the number or types of competitors
25
Q

What are the main three non living factors that change the environment that plants and animals live in?

A
  1. ) a change in average temperature
  2. ) a change in average rainfall
  3. ) a change in the level or water or air pollution
26
Q

What are the three ways environmental changes can affect populations?

A

Population size increase, population size decrease and the population distribution changes

27
Q

What does a change in distribution mean?

A

A change where the organism lives

28
Q

If it easy or difficult to easily measure accurately how much the environment is changing?

A

Difficult

29
Q

How can air pollution be monitored with a living indicator?

A

By looking at types of lichen that are very sensitive to the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere

30
Q

If there is less lichen what does that tell you about the air?

A

It is polluted with a lot of sulphur dioxide

31
Q

What living indicator can we he to measure water pollution?

A

When raw sewage is released into a river, the bacterial population in the water increases and uses up the oxygen, some animals like mayfly larvae are very sensitive to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water, and if there isn’t a lot you won’t find many mayfly larvae

32
Q

What animals would you expect to see in polluted conditions because that’s what they have adapted to survive in?

A

Rat tailed maggots and sludge worms

33
Q

How do scientists measure the temperature of the sea surface and the amount of snow and ice cover?

A

With satellites

34
Q

What can automatic weather stations tell us?

A

The atmospheric temperature

35
Q

How can you find out how much the average rainfall changes year on year?

A

Measure the rainfall each year using rain gauges

36
Q

What can scientist use to monitor how the level of water pollution is changing ?

A

They use dissolved oxygen meters, which measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water, the less oxygen the more polluted it is

37
Q

What is the name of a feeding level in a pyramid of biomass?

A

Trophic level

38
Q

What happens each time you go up a trophic level in a pyramid of biomass?

A

There’s less energy and less biomass and usually fewer organisms

39
Q

What is an example why there isn’t always fewer organisms says you go up a trophic level in a pyramid of biomass?

A

500 fleas could be feeding on one fox

40
Q

What does each bar in a pyramid of biomass show?

A

The mass of living material at each stage in the food chain

41
Q

What is the source of energy for nearly all life on a earth?

A

The sun

42
Q

How do green plants and algae use the energy from the sun?

A

They use it to make food during photosynthesis

43
Q

Where is the energy made through photosynthesis and what happens to it when the plant is eaten?

A

Stored in the substances which make up the cells of plants and, it then works it way through the food chain as it is eaten

44
Q

What supplies the energy for all life processes?

A

Respiration

45
Q

How is most of the energy lost in mammals and bird?

A

It is lost of heat to the surroundings as mammals and birds have to have their bodies at a constant temperature which is normally higher than their surroundings

46
Q

Other than through heat loss what two other ways is material and energy lost from mammals and birds?

A

Material which makes up mammals and birds is in edible and so it is lost and isn’t passed on, also energy energy and material is lost from the food chain in the organisms waste material

47
Q

Give three reasons why most of the biomass is lost and so does not become biomass in the next level up in a pyramid of biomass.

A
  1. ) Energy is lost through heat
  2. ) Material is lost through in edible material like bones
  3. ) Energy and material is lost as waste material
48
Q

Why do you hardly ever get food chains with more than five trophic levels?

A

So much energy is lost at each stage and so there’s nor enough energy left to support more organisms after the fifth level

49
Q

By what process are elements cycle back to the start of the food chain?

A

Decay

50
Q

What elements do plants take from the soil and the air?

A

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen

51
Q

What do plants change the element they get from the soil or the air into?

A

Complex compounds like carbohydrates, proteins and fats

52
Q

How are the elements that a plant gets from the soil or the air returned to the environment?

A

Either in waste products or when the organism dies, these material decay because they are broken down by microorganism and so are put back into the soil

53
Q

In what conditions do microorganism work best in?

A

Warm, moist conditions with plenty of oxygen

54
Q

What does the carbon cycle show?

A

How carbon is recycled

55
Q

How is carbon removed from the air?

A

As carbon dioxide through photosynthesis

56
Q

Name four things happen to the carbon that is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and is stored as carbon compounds in plants?

A
  1. ) some carbon is returned to the atmosphere when the plants respire
  2. ) when the plants are eaten the carbon becomes part of the fats and proteins in animals
  3. ) the plant could be changed into useful material like wood or paper
57
Q

Other than plants respiring what else respites to release carbon dioxide into the air?

A

Animals

58
Q

What happens when plants and animals die and where does the carbon go?

A

Other animals called detritus feeders and microorganism feed on their remains, when these organism respire carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere

59
Q

What other way is carbon returned to the atmosphere by animal other than respiration?

A

Animals produce waste which is also broken down by detritus feeders and microorganism

60
Q

What happens to carbon compounds that are in the soil?

A

They are taken up by plants as nutrients and then put back into the food chain again

61
Q

How is carbon in the useful plant and animals products released back into the air?

A

When they are burnt carbon dioxide is released into the air

62
Q

What useful things can be made from plants and animals?

A

Wood, paper, meat, leather and wool

63
Q

Differences within a species are called?

A

Variation

64
Q

What are the two types of variation?

A

Genetic variation and environmental variation

65
Q

Different what causes genetic variation?

A

Genes

66
Q

Genes that are inherited from a parent determine what for organisms?

A

Their characteristics

67
Q

What is a gene?

A

Codes inside your cells that control how you’re made

68
Q

How are genes passed on from parent to offspring?

A

In gametes

69
Q

Name three characteristic caused only genes?

A

Eye colour, blood group and inherited disorders

70
Q

What type of variation is caused by the environment that organism live and grow in?

A

Environmental variation

71
Q

Name one thing environmental variation can cause in plants?

A

A plant with more light will have greener leaves than a plant in the shade

72
Q

Are most characteristics caused by genetic or environmental variation or a combination of both?

A

A combination of both

73
Q

Name three characteristics that are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic variation?

A

Body weight, height and skin colour

74
Q

What does a nucleus contain?

A

Your genetic material in the form of chromosomes

75
Q

How many pairs of chromosomes does a human cell contain?

A

23 pairs

76
Q

What do chromosomes contain?

A

Genes

77
Q

Different versions of the same genes are called?

A

Alleles

78
Q

A gene is a long length of?

A

DNA

79
Q

What are the two types of reproduction?

A

Sexual and asexual

80
Q

What is sexual reproduction?

A

The fusion of male and female gametes to produce offspring that contain a mixture of their parents genes.

81
Q

What happens during asexual reproduction?

A

A cell divides in two, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent - they are clones

82
Q

What is the main difference in the cells produced by sexual and asexual reproduction?

A

Sexual reproduction produces genetically different cells and asexual reproduction produces genetically identical cells.

83
Q

How many chromosomes does a gamete have and how does this differ from normal cell?

A

They contain 23 chromosomes - it’s half the number of chromosomes in a normal cell.

84
Q

Why are offspring made through sexual reproduction different from both parents?

A

They receive a mixture of chromosomes from the mum and dad and so inherit features from both.

85
Q

What two things is asexual reproduction used for?

A

Growth and cell replacement

86
Q

Name an organism that reproduces using asexual reproduction?

A

Bacteria

87
Q

Name two ways plants can be cloned?

A

From cuttings and by tissue culture.

88
Q

How do cuttings produce plant clones?

A

Gardeners take cuttings from plants and plant them to produce genetically identical copies of the parent plant.

89
Q

How do tissue cultures make clones of plants?

A

Plant cells are put in a growth medium with hormones and they grow into new plants - clones of the parent plant.

90
Q

Name three advantages of using a tissue culture to create a clone of a plant.

A

Plants can be made quickly, in very little space and can be grown all year.

91
Q

Name one way you can make animal clones

A

Embryo transplants

92
Q

What happens during an embryo transplant?

A

Sperm cells are taken from a male animal and egg cells are taken from the female. The sperm is used to artificially fertilise the egg cell. The embryo then develops and is split many times before any cells become specialised. The cloned embryos are then Implanted into lots of other animals and are all genetically identical to each other.

93
Q

What happens during adult cell cloning?

A

An unfertilised egg cell has its genetic material removed, a complete set of chromosomes from an adult body cell are then inserted into the empty egg cell. The cell is stimulated by an electric shock which makes it divide like a normal embryo. When the embryo is a ball of cells it is then implanted into the surrogate mother to grow into genetically identical copies of the original body cell.

94
Q

Name a famous example of when adult cell cloning was used?

A

Dolly the sheep

95
Q

Why is there an issue surrounding cloning with respect to disease?

A

Cloning reduces gene pool meaning the population is all closely related. If a new disease appears they could all be wiped out because there is no allele in the population to give resistance to the disease.

96
Q

Name two advantages of cloning animals?

A
  1. ) greater understanding of the development of embryos.

2. ) can preserve endangered species.

97
Q

How are enzymes used in genetic engineering?

A

A useful gene is cut from one organisms chromosomes using enzymes. Enzymes are then used to cut another organisms chromosome and then to insert the useful gene.

98
Q

Name one use of genetic engineering using enzymes?

A

The human insulin gene can be inserted into bacteria to produce human insulin.

99
Q

How can genetic engineering be used in crops?

A

Modify their genes to make them resistant to viruses, insects or herbicides and survive on less water.

100
Q

How and why is genetic engineering used in sheep?

A

Sheep have been genetically engineered to produce substances like drugs, in their milk that can be used to treat human diseases.

101
Q

How are scientists trying to treat genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis?

A

By inserting working genes into sufferers - this is called gene therapy.

102
Q

What is a worry about the long term effect of genetic engineering

A

Changing a persons genes might accidentally create unplanned problems which could be then passed on to future generations.

103
Q

Name three disadvantages of genetically modified crops?

A
  1. ) reduced farmland bio diversity as it affects the number of weeds and flowers.
  2. ) people aren’t convinced they are safe, worried that allergies to them can develop.
  3. ) transplanted genes can get out into the natural environment, could create herbicide resistant weeds.
104
Q

Name two advantages of genetically modified crops?

A
  1. ) increases yield

2. ) can be used in LEDCs to create plants that have higher nutritional value.

105
Q

What does the theory of evolution state?

A

More than 3 billion years ago life on earth began as simple organisms from which all the more complex organisms evolved.

106
Q

Looking at what can help you classify organisms into different groups?

A

Looking at their similarities and differences.

107
Q

How are plants similar?

A

Plants make their own food by photosynthesis and are fixed in the ground.

108
Q

How are animals similar?

A

They can move about the place and can’t make their own food.

109
Q

What is an evolutionary relationship and an ecological relationship?

A

An evolutionary relationship is how everything is related, an ecological relationship is how everything interacts with each other.

110
Q

What do evolutionary trees show ?

A

Common ancestors and relationships between organisms.

111
Q

If organisms live in the same environment why might they have similar characteristics?

A

They are in competition for the same food source.

112
Q

What theory explains how evolution occurs?

A

Natural selection

113
Q

Who came up with the theory of natural selection?

A

Charles Darwin

114
Q

What is natural selection ?

A

Individuals within a species show variation because of the difference in their genes. Individuals with characteristics that make them better adapted to their environment have a better chance of survival and so are more likely to reproduce so the useful characteristics will be passed onto the next generation.

115
Q

Other than natural variation why can evolution occur?

A

Due to mutations.

116
Q

What is a mutation?

A

A change in the organisms DNA

117
Q

How can a mutation cause evolution?

A

If a mutation is beneficial the organism may have a better chance of survival and so reproducing passing on this mutation causing evolution .

118
Q

What three reasons did people disagree with Darwin.

A
  1. ) it went against religious beliefs on how life developed on earth.
  2. ) he couldn’t give a good explanation as to why useful characteristics appeared or how they were passed on.
  3. ) he didn’t have evidence.
119
Q

Other than Darwin who had a hypothesis about evolution?

A

Lamarck

120
Q

What was Lamarks theory of evolution ?

A

If a characteristic was used a lot it will become more developed during their lifetime. These acquired characteristics will be passed onto the next generation.

121
Q

Using Lamarks theory explain why rabbits have long legs.

A

If a rabbit used it’s legs a lot to run away from predators their legs would become longer, this means the offspring will have longer legs.

122
Q

Give three reasons why scientists may develop different hypotheses.

A
  1. ) they have different religions beliefs
  2. ) they have been influenced by different people
  3. ) they think differently.