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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (41)
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1

Voluntary or involuntary movement : skeletal muscle

Voluntary. Eg biceps, quads

2

Voluntary or involuntary movement : smooth muscle

Involuntary. Eg gastro- intestinal peristalsis movement

3

Voluntary or involuntary movement : cardiac muscle

Involuntary. Eg. Heart muscle contraction

4

Define eccentric

Muscle lengthening under tension

5

Define isometric

No change in muscle length under tension

6

Define concentric

Muscle shortening under tension all load

7

Factors that influence tension generation in skeletal muscle: cross section and size of muscle

The larger the muscle diameter, the greater the force it can produce

8

Factors that influence tension generation in skeletal muscle: muscle architecture fibre arrangement and length

Short fibres= higher force
Long fibres= less force

9

Factors that influence tension generation in skeletal muscle: fibre type

Type 1: slow, low force
Type 2: rapid high force

10

Factors that influence tension generation in skeletal muscle: type of muscle contraction

Eccentric > isometric > concentric

11

Factors that influence tension generation in skeletal muscle: speed of muscle contraction

Concentric: increase speed= decrease force
Eccentric: increase speed = increase force

12

Define local muscle fatigue

diminished response of a muscle to repeated stimulus. An acute physiological response that is normal and reversible

13

Define general cardio respiratory fatigue

Diminished response of the entire body from prolonged physical activity. Related to the body's ability to use oxygen

14

Signs and symptoms of muscle fatigue

Uncomfortable sensation within the muscle such as pain or cramping, tremor in muscle during contraction, active movements are jerky, inability to complete the movement pattern through full ROM during exercise, use of substitute movements, inability to continue low- intensity physical activity

15

Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise: skeletal muscle adaptations

Hypertrophy - increase in size of an individual muscle fibre, usually occurs by 4-8 weeks of strength training, accounts for strength gains in muscle, associated with high volume moderate resistance eccentric training.
Muscle finer type adaptation - transformation of type 2 muscle fibres to make them more fatigue resistant

16

Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise: neural adaptations

The initial rapid gain in the tension- generating capacity of skeletal muscle is largely attributed to neural responses, not adaptive changes in muscle

17

What is overtraining

A decline in physical performance in healthy individuals participating in a high intensity, high volume strength and endurance training program. Often caused by poor training, insufficient diet including hydration and inadequate rest. Individual progressively fatigues more quickly and requires more time to recover. Preventable and reversible.

18

What is overwork

Progressive deterioration of strength in muscles already weakened by non-progressive neuromuscular disease

19

Acute muscle soreness

Develops during or directly after strenuous exercise performed to the point of muscle exhaustion. Pain subsides quickly after exercise. Due to lack of adequate blood flow and oxygen and a temporary buildup of metabolites, such as lactic acid.

20

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

Develops approx. 12-24 hours after muscular overexertion. Most severe after repetitive high intensity eccentric exercise. Intensifies and usually peaks by 24-48 hours after exercise

21

Define Vo2 max

A measure of the body's capacity to use oxygen. The maximum amount of oxygen consumed per min when the person has reached maximal effort. Usually expressed relative to body weight

22

Define cardiac output

Volume of blood pumped by the heart per min.

23

Calculate cardiac output

Stroke volume X heart rate

24

Define stroke volume

Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in 1 heart beat

25

3 types of muscle in the human body

Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle

26

Acute cardiovascular response to exercise

Sympathetic
Nervous system - vasoconstrict blood vessels to non-exercise muscles- vasodilate blood vessels to exercising muscles. - increase cardiac output by increasing heart rate and increasing stroke volume - increase systolic blood pressure. Result is deliver more oxygen to the working area/muscles

27

Long-term cardiovascular response to exercise

At rest: decreased resting heart rate, decrease blood pressure increase blood volume and hemoglobin
During exercise: decreased exercise heart rate, increased stroke volume and increase cardiac output, increase extraction of oxygen by a the working muscles
Result: more efficient cardiovascular function during exercise

28

Acute respiratory response to exercise

Occurs before exercise starts, increased respiratory rate, increase O2 and CO2 exchange in the lungs, increase muscle metabolism

29

Long-term respiratory response to cardiovascular exercise

At rest: larger lung volumes, greater alveolar-capillary surface area
During exercise: greater oxygen/CO2 exchange, lower respiratory rate with the same oxygen consumption, increased maximal RR

30

Health benefits to cardiovascular exercise

Reduced risk of high blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease, reduce percentage of body fat, decreased risk of obesity, reduced risk of some forms of cancer, reduce stress, increased sense of well-being, improve sleep