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Four genres for 19th century instrumental music

concert, concert etude, symphonic poem and concert overture


19th Century Instrumental styles

wide spectrum of social classes
more amateur musicians
more venues
new music for new instruments
virtuoso musicians: Liszt, Chopin, Paganini, Joachim, Remenyi


Felix Mendelssohn years

1809 - 1847


Mendelssohn Biography - youth

Born 1809 Hamburg Germany into musical Jewish family
1 or 4 children, older sister Fanny pianist
Family converted to Christianity surname Bartholdy
Started piano lessons at age 7, 10 studying theory
gifted painter and linguist
Travelled Europe, met Goethe at 12, met Liszt at 16
Composed in his teens Octet for Strings, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream


Mendelssohn Biography - Young Adult

1827 - studies law and aesthetics UoBerlin GWF Hegel
1829 - organized revival Bach's St Matthew Passion
compostions inspired by travelling landscapes Italy, Austria
1833 - director Dusseldorf
1835 - conductor Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra - 1846
1837 - married Cecil Jeanrenaud 5 kids happy


Mendelssohn Biography - Final Years

1841 - Kapellmiester in Berlin as well as Leipzig
Invited as conductor to England and Europe - Queen Victoria
1843 - founded Leipzig Conservatory
1847 - Sudden death of Fanny, died of strokes few months later


Mendelssohn Style

Mozart of 19th century
close study of Bach-counterpoint, choral from Handel
Balance from Mozart
clear harmony structure and form moderate orchestra
Innovate - link movements
Romantic - programm, unexpected modulation, virtuosic
helped develop formal concerto structure
vivid orchestra, leggiero string passages, chordal texture in winds
light, scherzando - overMidSummer his style


Mendelssohn Titles

Symph: 3 Scottish, 4 Italian, 5 Reformation
Concerto: 3 violin, 2 piano, 2 dblpiano, 1 piano+vio
Over-MidSummer, Hebrides
Incidental - antigone, MidSumm
Chamber: duo, sQuartet, pianoTrio, Quartets, Octet
SoloPiano: Andante and rondo capriccioso, Variations Serieuses, sonatas, preludes, fugues Song without Words
Organ: prelues and fugues
Oratorio: St Paul, Elijah
Vocal: concert aria, Leider, folk, duets


Mendelssohn Violin concerto Summary

E Minor op 64
violinist Ferdinand David
dramatic passion
poetic lyricism and virtuosity
3 movements
orchestra and solo violin


Mendelssohn Violin concerto First Movement General

Allegro molto appassionato
Cut time
sonata form with dbl exposition


Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Mov 1: Exposition

Expo: Theme1: soloViolin intro, melody Emin triad
Bridge Theme: solo angular melody, electric passagework, dbl stops, chromatic thirds, arpgg figures
Modulates to G Major
Theme2: clarinet flute intro serene G major violin accompanies
based on repeated note, pp, tranquillo
ViolinTheme1 returns
Codetta recall Theme 1 but in GMajor - virtuosic cadential figures flow into Development


Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Mov 1: Development

tremolando dim7 figure dramatic tension
orchestra alternates with soloTheme1
solo recall bridge A min agitato
woodwinds fragmented Theme1 accomp by solo 8note passage
juxtaposition tonic major and minor modes
serene mood emerges briefly
tension virtuosic orchestra drops out ->cadenza, fully written out. extreme high, dbl stops, arpeggios
*strange place for a cadenza usually after Recap


Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Mov 1: Recap and Coda

cadenza seamless link
orchestra Theme1 E minor accomp by solo arpeggios from cadenza
Theme2 E Major
CODA: started by deceptive
solo dominates rapid ascending chromatic triplets
Theme1 and bridge echoes
increase tempo until final cadence
final tonic chords, after bassoon sustains B to link to Mov2.


Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E min, Mov 2 and 3

Mov 2: C Major Andante 6/8 ternary
meditative movement solo plays both melody and accomp
Mov 3: E major,Allegro molto vivace, C, sonata
spritely character lively


Franz Liszt Years



Franz Liszt Biography Youth

1811 Raiding Hungary (close to Vienna)
Adam(father) in Haydn's orchestra
Lessons with Father, composing at 8, concert at 9
1821 - moved to Vienna Carl Czerny teacher, Antonio Salieri
1823 - Paris performing and learning not accepted into Conservetoir
Paris sensation, toured England, Ireland, Switz, Frnech cities teenager
torn between performer and priest, father died 1827


Liszt Concert Pianist Years

performed and taught as a living all over
greatest pianist technical proweress
Based in Paris knew; Berlioz, Bellini, Geatano Donizetti, Frederic Chopin, Nicolo Paganini
Historical solo piano recital London 1840
rock star, affairs but long term Marie d'agoult left her husband . they had three children ended bitterly
Charities for floods Hungary 1838


Liszt Weimar Years

moved to Weimar to compose conduct, music director, productions of operas Berlioz, Verdi, Schumman, Wagner
Lived with Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein; home for musicians
composed orchestra concerto
retired, teacher, master class format


Liszt Late Years, Rome, Weimar, Budapest

followed Princess to Rome, never married, ended in 64
deeply affected by death of son and daughter and mother
studied catholic theology, became minor order
traveled a lot, final tours 1886 Paris and London
Died in Bayreuth


Liszt Style

Career affected compositions, piano transcriptions
personal life duality in music virtuoso but inspired religious titles.
Changes piano performance - memory, recitals, side profile
developed modern piano technique; tremolos, extreme register, cascading passages, rapid
Master class
Romantic - concert etude, lyric piano
programm: invented symponic poem
freedom innovation, single move works Piano Sonata B Min, Piano Concerto Eb Major
Harmony: chromatic, progressive, mediant, augtriads, Nuages gris - impressionism
Hungarian Folk 'rhapsodies, fantasy'


Liszt Titles

Piano; transcendental Etudes, 3 Petrarch sonnets, liebestraume, 19 hungarian rhap, annees de pelegrinage
transcriptions, Lieder schubert, symphony Beethoven
3 Piano concertos; Malediction, Totentanz, Hungarian F
Orch: symppoem Les preludes, program symp: Faust, Dante
Vocal: oratorio, masses, Leider
chamber, organ


Liszt La Campanella general

unprecedented virtuosity - homage to Paganini
Piano Etude
1838, rev1851
source: Violin Concerto No 2 Paganini

G# minor



french - study
solo instrumental technical development
focus on one or more special techniques


thematic transformation

basic theme repeated throughout in different forms
changed rhythm, melody, harmony
not variation, theme takes on new identity new context


Liszt La Campenella Intro

Section A: brief intro, main theme right hand
D# high - bell sustain
wide leaps RH technical difficulty
repeated with embellishment
Section B: B Major, sequential ascending pattern chromatic harmony
A1: rapid repeated notes broken RH octaves
B1: embellished, theme in LH, RH accomp widely spaced
ends with cadenza-like chromatic passages alternative hands
A2: melody high, 32nd trills, mimic violin string cros
B2: many leaps contrast volume, thundering octavs
A3: recap fore, dramatic octaves
chromatic contrary octaves prep for coda
CODA: animato, loud octaves tonic G# conclusion


Bedrich Smetana Life and Style

Virtuoso pianist, dedicated Six Chr pieces to Liszt
5 years Sweden; concerts, directed choral, vocal academy
Program music Liszt influence
Bohemian (Czech) patriot; Brandeburgers in Bohemia
quoted folk songQuoted folk songs, mostly original melodies resembling folk; Bartered Bride
cyclical unity Ma Vlast
broad, sweeing melodies
harmonic: chromatic, frequent modal harmony


Bedrich Smetana Titles

Operas 8, Bartered Bride, The Kiss, Dalibor, Libuse
Orchestr: 6 cycles symphon poem Ma Vlast, symphony, overtures, prelused, marches
chamber: 2 SQ, piano trio
Piano: dances polkas, character pieces sets
Vocal: art songs, choral works


Smetana Ma Vlast - Vltava background

symphonic poem
2nd in set of 6 SympPoems Ma Vlast
published program River passes through scenes, last Vysehrad castle, then vanishes Bohemia


program music

trend in 19th century
instrumental with poetic, visual associations
descriptive title shows connection
some include written text, program, or poem


Symphonic Poem

tone poem
one popular forms orchestral program music
single movement, free form, literal or pictorial assoc.
Invented by Franz Liszt


Smetana Vltava - general

Allegro commodo non agitato
Themes: 5-6
Source of River Theme
River, Hunting, Peasant Wedding, Nocturnal, St. John rapids
river theme repeated to Ancient Castle Theme
Disappearance of river - Coda


Smetana Vltava - themes 1-4

flutes intro undulating 16th note figure
lusingando, coazing, clarinets join pizzicato strings
River: strings broad arched theme
swirling 16th note accompaniment
triangle gentle shimmer
Hunting: C Major brass bold fanfare figure horns
triangle prominent
Peasant Wedding: G Major, folk 2/4 polka, narrow range repeated notes
unfolds four measure phrases, dance rhythm


Smetana Vlatava - themes 5,6,7

Nocturnal Scene - Ab Major, high string register gentle half note melody
dolcissimo, harps moonbeams waters surface
muted brass nobility
River returns abridged
St. John Rapids: frag and devlop River theme. dissonance clashing harmonies, heavy brass and piccolo figures
River theme in E major to ancient Castle:
Ancient Castle: broad hymn melody E Major full orchestra
borrowed from first poem in Ma Vlast
River dissappears: diminuendo onward journey
sequential dominant-tonic harmony strings
bold perfect cadence conclusion


Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky Years



Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky Life and Style

Balanced Russian and Western
Romantic - lyrical melody, emotional, rich orchestration, expressive, virtuosity-piano and violin concertos unplayable
program - Manfred Symphony op58 - writtings of Byron
Russian folk, dance, fables, vocal music and operas, The Queen of Spades - novel by Alexander Pushkin
taught theory at Moscow Conservatory
Pathos - Symphony no 6 Bmin op74 Pathetique
Famous during lifetime, traveled conducting, even to America 1891 Carnegie Hall NYC


Tchaikovsky Titles

10 operas Eugene Onegin, The Queen of Spades
Ballets; Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker
Orch: 6 #'d symphonies (no3 Polish, no6 Pathetique. Manfred concert overtures (Romeo Juliet, Serenade for Strings, Capriccio Italien)
Concertos; 2 piano, 1 violin
chamber: SQ, sextets, piano trio
Piano: The Seasons
vocal: choral, art songs


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - background

1870 premiere
Concert Overture
Sonata Form
program: characters Friar Laurence, Romeo and Juliet. feud theme, love theme and tragic death. essential emotions captured from Shakespeare's drama
*lyricism, vivid orchestra, pathos


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - Intro and Expo

Intro: Andante non tanto quasi moderato
C, F#min
Frar Laurence Theme - low clarinets bassoon, high wood pizzicato, strings+WW play boldly


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - Expo

Theme1:Feud Allegro giusto, C, Bmin, agitated syncopated melody Forte, cellos, answered piccolo
cymbals crash against driving strings
Bridge sudden pp, woodwinds, Dbl,horns gentle undulating fig set scene
Theme2-Love theme; DbMajor, C, stated broadly English horns, muted voilas. restated in high WW extended
Codetta - harp softly accompanies muted strings


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - Develop, Recap and Coda

- FeudTheme softly strings WW
- Friar Theme extensive treatment, reiterated horns
agitation abrupt changes volume, tossing
interrupted by Feud thee violent crashing cymbals


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - Recap

Recap: Feud Theme Bmin FF, full orches, cymbal, rapid descending string fig
LoveTheme2B Juliet played gentle oboe, string accomp
2A Love; Dmajor, broadly strings F, undulating horns
expanded, interupted by Feud and Friar
crashing cymbal punctu
bold timpanu roll into coda


Tchaikovsky Romeo and Juliet Overture - Coda

Love theme Juliet transformed into funeral song Bmajor
WW+harp follow solemn hymn-like passage
Love Theme Juliet repeated expansively in strings
solemn chords FF full orchestra ominous timpani figure