Unit 4 and 5 Flashcards Preview

RCM History 3 Full > Unit 4 and 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4 and 5 Deck (129):
1

Card Question

Card Answer

2

20th century Art styles

Impressionism
Expressionism
Primitivism
Pop art
Minimalism
Post Modern

3

Impressionism

radical painting Paris 1860
play of light
rejected formal portrait, more nature
favoured visible brushstokes
Monet, Renoir, Degas, Seurat, van Gogh

4

Expressionism

German alte 19th early 20th
subjective emotions, human fear, trauma, obsession
distortion, exxageration, angularity, bold
Munch, Kandinsky, Kokoschka, Schiele

5

Primitivism

late 19th non-western tribal art artifacts
elemental, abstraction geometric
Gauguin and early Pablo Picasso

6

Pop Art

American late 1950's
pop culture television, comics
Andy Worhol, Lichtenstein, Rauschenburg and Jasper Johns

7

Minimalism

New York 1960's
stark abstraction geometric elements
juxtaposition of shapes or colours
Judd, Stella, Flavin, Mark Rothko

8

Post Modern

mid to late 20th architectural
reaction to simple 1920's
return to ornamentalism; columns, pediments
Micheal Graves, Philip Johnson, Robert Venturi

9

20th Century Music

post-romanticism
impressionism in music
expressionism in music
atonality

10

Post-Romanticism

expansive medolies, chrom harmony, lush orchestra, program
Der Rosenkavalier final trio Strauss

11

Impressionism in Music

late 19, early 20 French style
Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel
program, non-traditional scales, modes, whole tone, pentatonic
blurring metrical pulse
La Cathedral engloutie debussy

12

Expressionism in Music

20th century German
extreme dissonance, angular, irregular rhythm groupings
deeply physcological themes
Ewartung op 17 Schoenberg

13

atonality

music that has no tonal center no sense of key
Five Pieces for Orchestra Schoenberg

14

Second Viennese Schoole

new school by schoenberg, alban berg and Anton webern
expressionism, developed 12 tone
atonality, contrapunctal texture
Violin Concerto mov 1 Alban Berg

15

serialism

20th century compositional approach set by SecondVienneseSchool
musical paramters set by numbers, undergoas manipulation
synonmyn dodecaphics, 12 tone
Le marteau sans maitre Pierre Boulez

16

neo-Classicism

post WW1 style return to absolute music and traditional form
less emotional, Symphon 1 op 25 Classical by Sergei Prokofiev

17

neo-Romanticism

late 20th, return tonal lush orcehstra expansive melody
heightened emotionalism
Adagio for Strings, Samuel Barber

18

Jazz

uniquely American, developed by AfroAm in New Orleans/Chicago/NY
emphasized syncopation, inflected melodies blues scale b3, b5, b7) improv
West End Blues, Louis Armstrong

19

indeterminacy

aleatoric music mid 20th century
randomness /change to aspects of music and performance
Venetian Games; Witold Lutoslawski

20

electronic music

created whole or in part by electronic means
recording devides, synth, computers,
Philomel by Milton Babbitt

21

minimalism in music

later 20th century
endless repition of shotr melodic patterns
steve Reich, Philip Glass, John Adams, Michael Nymanx
Glassworks by Philip Glass

22

Gustav Mahler style

traditional; sonata, rondo, theme+var
Romantic-emotional, Sehnsucht, Weltschmerz, chromatic broad lyricism
next step Lieder
orchestral song developed; group songs solo voice and orchestra
progressive harmony tonality bitonality
exoticism pentatonic Chinese texts in last symph
influence by Beethoven; choir, cyclic
grand orchestra No8 thousand
orchestration master
childhood influences folk
poems as text
life and death, purpose no2 Resurrection

23

Gustav Mahler years

1860-1911

24

Gustav Mahler titles

9 symph no2Resurr, 6Tragic, 8ofThousand
orchestral song cycle Das Lied von der Erde, Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Kindertotenlieder
voal Dal klagende lied, lieder

25

Mahler Symph 4 general

1899-1901
German - Des Knaben Wunderhorn poem
4 movements
large orchestra and Mezzo (4th mov only)

26

symphony

multimovement orchestral work
18th century Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
usually 4 movements
1 in sonata form

27

cyclical structure

material heard in one movement recures in later movements
structural unity
Romantic composers mostly in symphony

28

Mahler Symphony 4, Movement 4 summary

G Major - Emajor
Formal structure, strophic,rondo-like
opens Sehr behaglich very comfortably
Common time
childs optimistic view of heaven, feast prepared by the saints

29

Mahler Sympn4 mov 4 Intro and V1:

Orchestra intro - principal theme
clarinet ppp folk melody tonic chord
lyricism dotted figures grace notes
harp gently in background angles
Verse1: mexxo expansive prinTheme
undulating melisma word Heaven
harp pizzicato strings support woodwinds and triangle
high G Saint Peter
accomp homorythm chorale flutes, horns, harp
parallel chords solemn archaic
TRANS: parkling sleigh bells first mov.
repeated note harsh gracenotes winds brass
16thnote woodwinds imitates strings
string articulation varies con arco, pizz, col legno

30

Mahler Sympn4 mov 4 Verse 2

prep for feast; leading lamb to slaughter
mezzo broad descending phrase repated notes
word painting little lamb twonote cleating figure oboes
sublime high G the anlges
TRANS: repeated in abbreviated form

31

Mahler Sympn4 mov 4 Verse 3

About feast food
mezzo variant of principal theme
bounties of heaven- spirited angular melody
concludes with chorale-like setting richly scored

32

Mahler Sympn4 mov 4 Verse 4

about the angel's music
marked very tenderly mysteriously
to E major 'heavenly key'
sentiments of text unorthodox modulating and ending
closing measures recall cal opening feature Enghorn and harp

33

Maurice Ravel years

1875-1937

34

Maurice Ravel biography - youth

1875 - Basque village of Ciboure -> Paris
father swiss, mother Basque
piano 7 yrs
1889- Paris Conservetoire, paris world fair
first- Menuet antique
composition class Gabriel Faure
popular, but didn't win Prix de Rome
friends Les apaches:Richardo Vines, Erik Satie

35

Maurice Ravel biography - career years - final years

popular as composer
comfortable lifestyle
1909 comission Sergie Diagilev Les Ballet des Russes - Daphnis et Chloe orchestra wind machine
1915 WW1 ambulance driver
1917 mother dies slowed output
Le tombeau dedication to war
arrogant - rejected Chevalier of the Legion of Honour
1927 - USA visit friend with Gershwin
honoary doctorate Oxford
1932 - injured taxi brain
1937 died in Paris brain surgery

36

Maurice Ravel - style

tonal harmony with chrom
bass lines traditional diatonic
impressionist; modes, pentatonic, whole tone, paralell, unresolved 7 and 9th chords, aggregate chords
neoClassicism, lean texture contrapun
rich orchestra like debussy, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky
spanish like mother Basque; Rapsodie espagnole, Bolero
american jazz - piano concerto G, violin sonata Blues movement
set french poetry symolists
humor, gentle, charm

37

Maurive Ravel - titles

ochestra: Rapsodie espagnole, La valse
concerto: piano for left hand, and G
ballet; Daphnis, Bolero, Ma mere l'oyre
opera: L;heure espagnole, l'enfant et les sortileges
vocal; song collections Sheherazade, chansons madecasses, histoires naturelles
chamber: SQ, pianoTrio, duosonata
piano: Menuet antique, jeux d'eau, miroirs, gaspard de la nuit

38

Ravel Jeux d'eau general

1902 like Liszt piano les jeux d'eau..
Dedicated to faure, premiered by friend
french poet Regnier 'river god laughs as water tickles him'

39

glissando

french disser to slide
harp strumm all strings
shimmering effect
on piano; rapid ascending or descending slide on the keys

40

whole-tone scale

non traditional scale late 19,- 20th centuries
six pitches whole tone spacing
CDEF#G#A#(c)

41

pentatonic scale

5 pitches CDEGAC
five black keys on piano
folk music euro and asian culture

42

Ravel Jeux d'eau summary

E major
sonata form like
allegretto
common time

43

Ravel Jeux d'eau Exposition

THEME1: RH introduces delicate arpeg melody 16th 32nd notes
LH archors E major
harmony language 7th 9th chords unresolved
dolcissimo
Theme2: new pentatonic LH octaves
rapid harmonic seconds 16th triplets
RH melody open chords parallel motion
rippling 32nd notes LH tremolo figures
momenturm constant
pedal - shimmer
TRANS: Theme2 polytonal unresolved 9th

44

Ravel Jeux d'eau Development

new 5note melody RH supported by arpeggios
chrom ascending passages inner voice
gossamer harp
maintains relentless drive from pp to fff
culminates in a black-key glissando down

45

Ravel Jeux d'eau Recap

Theme1 restated over G# pedal
harplike effect flashing septuplet rolled
polytonality juxtaposition C major and f# major
Theme2: un poso pie lento
calm caressing
Coda: concludes undulating harp RH

46

Bela Bartok years

1881-1945

47

Bela Bartok biography - youth

1881 - Hungary now Romania
father headmaster, mother teacher also musicans
piano with mom at 5
father died, six years of moving less schooling
1890's composing, dance pieces waltzes polkas piano program
1892 - first public concert includes his own piano composition
1894 - settled in Poszony, now Slovak Republic
chapel organist local school
Vienna Conservatory idol Erno Dohnanyi hungarian piano
1899 - Budapest Academy piano composition
popular as pianist
inspired by Strauss symph poem Also sprach Zarathustra

48

Bela Bartok biography - career years

1903-1940
shy, health issues lungs
first success nationlist symph poem Kossuth
unqieu hungarian; folk music inspired
1905 - friend Zoltan Kodaly folk song collecting
travelled extensively to collect
instructor Budapest Academy over 20yrs
inspired by Les Ballets Russes -
1917 - premier ballet The Rooden Prince successful led to opera Bluebeard's Castle
1923 - married student, one son
performing again; popular gramaphone recordings concerts Europe
1928 - 2 month coast-coast USA
exposed human rights, wanted to emigrate

49

Bela Bartok biography - final years

1940 - toured USA again historic recording trio Contrasts Benny Goodman
moved to USA, Colombia University NYC struggled financially
1943 hospitalized leukemia
concerto commission by boston symphony
1945 - died in NYC

50

Bela Bartok style

enthusiasm for Strauss post Romatic style
hungarian folk, pentatonic, irregular ryth, dance
expressionist opera Bluebeard
influenced Debussy and Impressionism, Stravinsky primitivism
percussive approach instrumental Out of Doors
contrapunctal neoclassical fugue sonata rondo cyclic
mirror forms, formal structure Fibonacci
pedagogical works Mikrokosmos piano solos

51

Bela Bartok titles

opera: Bluebeard
ballet: wooden prince, miraculous mandarin
orchestral: Kossuth, Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celeste, Concerto for orchestra
concerto: 3 piano, 2 violin, viola
vocal: Cantata profana, folk arrng
chamber: 6 SQ, 2 violin sonata, contrasts, twopiano percussion sonata
piano: Rumanian dances, mikro, allegro barbaro, sonatina, out of doors

52

Bartok Concert for Orchestra mov4: general

1943, 5 movements
commission while in hospital done in 7 weeks
begins in E Lydian end B Major
rondolike ABACBA
Allegretto
changing meter

53

changing meter

20th century
time signature changes frquently
rejection of standard patterns nonsymmetrical

54

ostinato

short rythmic or melody pattern repated throughout

55

polytonality

simultaneos use of two or more keys

56

quotation in music

parodies another composition or style
draws melody from preexisting work, new guise

57

modality

nontraditional styles; scales back to antiquity
lydian mode EF#G#A#BC#D#E

58

Bartok Concert for Orchestra mov4: Intro, A and B

Intro: violins, violas, cellos 4note motive unison tritone
A: folk melody oboe tritone
expanded by woodwinds, accomp by inversion
syncopation
lopsided asymmetrical feel changing meter
B: calmo, cantabile, violas melody, loosely hungarian folk
harps contrapunctal writting, canonic immitation

59

Bartok Concert for Orchestra mov4: rest of rondo

A1: abbreviated opening, increased disson
C: interruption; clarinet melody from Shostakovich sym7
quotation crude - commentary on Nazi
dissonance, brass glissandi
tuba melody violin imitating inversted
rich harmonic fabric modal, atonal, polytonal
B1: sweeping melody returns dispells
thicker string texture, muted, warmer
A2: woodwinds fragm of opening
flue cadenza softly sustain chord strings
music dissolves gentle close

60

Sergei Prokofiev year

1891-1953

61

Sergei Prokofiev biography - youth

1891 Ukrain
welloff family, father engineer, mother pianist lessons at 4
composed at 5, loved opera wrote 4 opers in youth
lessons Reinhold Gliere russian pianist
1909 St. Petersburg Conservetory youngest ever ; wild playing percussive dissonant compositions
teachers Rimsky-Korsakov
1910 - first piano sonata student moscow debut
Rubinstein Prize upon graduation

62

Sergei Prokofiev biography - career and final years

1914-1953
London - Sergei Diaghilev - commissioned Scythian Suite
1918 to USA piano thrilled by critiqued savage
comic opera Love for Three Oranges Chicago
1922 - paris and travelled
international virtuoso pianist and composer
strong connection still with Soviet nation
1936 - went back to Moscow, with wide and sons
government censors
visited hollywork new art of film scoring
1948 - married poet Mira Mendelssohn his assistant operas Betrothal in amonestary and war/Peave
1953- died same time as dictator Stalin

63

Sergei Prokofiev style

Classical: forms sonata, genres concerto, symh no1 Classical
Lyrical: melodies lush harmony, Romeo Juliet
Motoric: ryth cdrive moto perpetuum
Toccata
Search for Innovation: profressive unabashed dissonance, abrupt changes of key, unqieu approach piano, novel texture, percussive effects
Diabolical Suggestion
Russian nationalism quotes folk Alexander Nevsky
impish scherzo crisp rythm staccato
harmonic language tonality dissonant
polytonality Sarcasm no2
virtuoso piano sonata concertos

64

Sergei Prokofiev titles

opera: The gamber, love 3orange, Firey Angel, War.Peace
ballet: ProdigalSon, RomJul, Cinderlla
filmscore: AlexNevky, LieuKije, IvantheTerrible
orches: 7 symph
concerto: 5 piano, 2 violin, 1 cello
chamber: 2 SQ conatas
vocal: UglyDuck, ThreeRomances, 12RussianFolksongs
solo pianoL 9 sonata, diabolical suggestion, sarcasms, vissions fugitives

65

Prokofiev Romeo Juliet The Capulet Ball Orchestral Suite No 2 - summary

1936; from ballet into orchestral suite
large orchestra with expanded percussion
ternary
no key
Andante
common time

66

ballet

dance often interprets a story
17th century cout of Louis the 14th
19th century ballet reached pinnicle at Russian court
Russian dancers dominated throughout 20th century

67

choreography

art of designing dance steps and movements
ballet or musical

68

en pointe

french for on point
challenging dance technqieu in ballet; femansl traditional
balance on toes with dance slippers with wooden box toe

69

orchestral suite

group orchestral movements drawn from larger work
programmatic
played in concert setting

70

Prokofiev Romeo Juliet The Capulet Ball Orchestral Suite No 2 - Intro and Section A

Intro: densley dissonant chords
entire orchestral range
extreme dynamics ppp to ff
ominous atmosphere feud
A: E minor, allegro pesante common time
twomeasure E minor low strings low brass melody
into bruqeu melody rising and falling tonis dominant minor arpeggios
pesante, agressive dottednote noble arrogance
syncopation
more pungent chromatic inflectiond
marcato, sharply angular wide span
Dminor; stepwise ascending natural minor
f by french horns in octaves
incessant dotted
leitmotif arrivals of the capulets
passes through Aminor and F minor back to e minor
perfect cadence ends

71

Prokofiev Romeo Juliet The Capulet Ball Orchestral Suite No 2 - Section B, A1

Eminor Moderato tranquillo 3/4
melody outlines ascending Eminor triad connection
flutes, joined by clarinets
harp, pizzicato strings, celesta etheral atmosphere
Juliets first dance at the ball ; dolce
A1: Eminor Allegro pesante 44
return abbreviated
tenor sax main theme
triplet figure final perfect cadence

72

Arnold Schoenberg Biography - Youth

1874 Vienna Austria
father shoe maker, died young
left school worked at bank 5 years
self-taught music
cello, chamber with friends
amateur orchestra Alexander Zemlinsky
quest of religion, OrthoJew to Christianity to Judaism
asthma, poor health

73

Arnold Schoenberg Years

1874-1951

74

Arnold schoenberg Biography - Middle Years

1901 married Zemlinsky's sister Mathilde
to Berlin-conductor cabaret, moved a lot
Teacher Stern Conservatory Berlin supported by Strauss
1903 Vienna private students - Webern
studied art - expressionism
1908 abandoned tonality The Book of the Hanging Gardens
published treatise on harmony
serviced in WWI - depressed slowed output
1917 Vienna years of silence, worked on 12tone
1923 first 12tone compositions, wife died
1926 Berlin instructor composition Prussian Academy Arts

75

Arnold schoenberg Biography - Final Years

1933 rise of Nazi - left Germany; summer France then to Boston
1934 LA - lectured at USC and UCLA
retired 70
1951 died in LA

76

twelve-tone music

method of composition Schoenberg
organize atonal music
fixed order of 12 chromatic pitches tone row
dodecaphonic music

77

tone row

fixed order of 12 chromatic pitches
basis of 12tone composition
undergoes manipulation; transposition, inversion, retrograde, retro-inver

78

inversion

writing the tone row upside down

79

retrograde

writing the tone row backwards

80

retrograde-inversion

writing the tone row upside down and backwards

81

diminution

rhythmic device note values shortened
music sounds faster

82

canon

Latin for law
strict imitation of music line at fixed intervals
used on whole work on inside

83

Arnold Schoenberg - Style period years

Post romantic until 1908
Expressionist 1908-1917
Years of Silence 1917-1923
Serialist 1923-1933
American 1933-1951

84

Arnold Schoenberg - Style general

atonality champion
radically new 12 tone technique
generally contracpuntal texture, chamber
revolutionary, lots of opposition

85

Arnold Schoenberg - Style Post Romantic

1908
Wagner, Mahler, Strauss
programm
chromatic, lush orchestra
Verklarte Nacht (transfigured Night)

86

Arnold Schoenberg - Style Expressionist

1908-1917
rejections of tonality
disjunct melody wide range
Klangfarbenmelodie
Sprechstimme
polyphonic procedures masked dissonance
Pierrot lunaire

87

Arnold Schoenberg - Style Serialist

1923-1933
12 tone
Classical form sonata, rondo, vari, suite
Variations for Orchestra op31

88

Arnold Schoenberg - Style American

1933-1951
greater style diversity, returns to tonal
more liberal 12 tone
more religious themes
Survivor From Warsaw

89

Arnold Schoenberg - Titles

opera: Erwartung one character, Moses und Aron
vocal: oratorio Gurrelieder and Die Jakobsleiter, Kol Nidre, cantata A survivor of warsaw
song cycle: Brettl Lieder, Das Buch der Hangenden, Pierrot lunaire
orchestra: tone poem Pelleas und Melisande
symph: 1,2, 5pcs for orchestra, variators for orch
concertos: cello, viol, piano
chamber: string sextet Verklarte Nacht
piano: Three Piano Pcs, Six Little Pieces

90

Schoenberg - Pierrot lunaire general

1912
song cycle
sad clown italian tradition
Sprechstimme sung and spoken story
German originally French
source: 21 poems Albert Giraud
mezzo and 8 instruments (5 players)
V,Violax2, Flute, Piccolox2, Clari/Bass,cello, piano)

91

Klangfarbenmelodie

German tone-color melody
20th century Schoenberg
individual motes melody from different instruments wide range
pointillism in painting
angular melody sparse sound

92

pointillism

post-Impressionist painting used dots of pure colour on canvas
in music; Klangfarbenmelodie and contrapuntal lines

93

Sprechstimme

German speech-voice
vocal technique Schoenberg
pitched speaking
singer initiates note then drops pitch slightly
indicated with an 'x' on the stem of the note

94

rondeau

poetic form 14th century
4 versus; 1 verse repeated in second and 4th in part
in music; similar structure for works

95

Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire - Der Mondfleck - general

voice, piccolo, clarinet, Vio, Cello, P
atonal, rondeau
Sehr rasche (very quickly)
3/4
TEXT: white fleck upsets pierrot rubs the spot but it's a moon beam

96

Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire - Der Mondfleck - music

brisk angular sung sprechstimme
pointillistic effect instruments complex weave
contrapuntal complexities 3-voice figure piano with canon imitation other parts
diminution and retrograde techniques
vocal line spans a wide range; most expressionist

97

Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire - O alter Duft aus Marchenzeit - general

voice and all 8 instruments
atonal, rondeau
Bewegt, with motion
Common time
TEXT: Pierrot in sunlight yearns for joy and life's possibilities (nostalgic)

98

Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire - O alter Duft aus Marchenzeit - music

in contract; melody flowing lyrical
consonance parallel third triads together ; traditional feeling hint of tonality
Sprechstimme wistful, dream

99

Alban Berg Style

1885-1935
Mahler ochestra and Wagner leitmotifs, Debussy wholetone/parallelchord
Schoenberg teacher (12tone, expressionism)
Balanced tonal and atonal
linerla serial technique, tone row tonal
traditional passacaglia, fugue, sonata, theme+var
virtuosic works
Sprechstimme and Klangferbenmelodie

100

Alban Berg Titles

opera: Wozzeck, Lulu unfinished
vocal: Altenberg Lieder orchestra, Der Wein concert aria
concerto: violin, chamber
orchestra: Three Orchestral pcs op6
chamber: SQ, 4pcs for clarinet, lyric suite
Piano: sonata op1

101

Berg Wozzeck - general

1922 opera
German
19th century play Woyzeck Georg Buchner
libretto: Berg himself
2 acts 5 scenes each

Bari Wozzeck
Sop Marie
boy soprano The Boy
tenor The Captain
bass The Doctor
tenor The Drum Major

made into a movie 1970

102

Berg Wozzeck - acts plot

Act1: Wozzeck taunted by Captain and Doctor to make him crazy, which is halfway already, suspected Marie's cheating
Act2: Wozzeck sees Marie's gold earings sign of cheating with the drum major. Drum major beats him up
Act3: Wozzeck meets marie under red mood; stabs her. later wades into the water and drowns. Final scene; little boy is abandonded by the children
- portrays victims by no fault of their own at mercy of unfeeling world

103

Berg Wozzeck - Act3 Scene 4

Wozzeck returns to find the knife, throws into the pond then wades after it and drowns

frentic angular vocal line wide range
harp glissandi wth Wozzeck's cry Morder
atonal harmony, chord clusters
Srechstimme -Wozzeck delirium and drowning
extended harp rises from depths bloodsoaked moon

Captain/Doctor hear moanig
dense 6nte chords, wellsup from low strings drowing

104

Berg Wozzeck - Interlude

adagio, 3/4, Dmin
meditation on Wozzeck's death
lyricism recalls leitmotifs earlier
full orchestra ppp to fff

105

Berg Wozzeck - Act3 Scene 5

Children playing; one says Marie's dead, and taunts the boy. boy doesn't understand till plays saying 'hopp, hopp'

children playing - spirited melody nursery rhyme unison chorus
pizzicato, strings stacato winds celesta, triangle bright mornig sun
when the boy is alone, playing - descending perfect 4th sings
undulating winds harp sustained strings unsettling close

106

Anton Webern style

1883-1945
Second Viennese school, Schoenberg teacher
lyrisicm Schubert, Bruckner and Mahler
Expressionism early
12tone radial strict approach almost total serialism
doctoral thesis on Tenaissance polyphony Heinrich Isaac - contrapuntal
canonic, palindromic
traditional forms, absolute music
Klangferbenmelodie

107

Anton Webern titles

orchestra: Im Sommerwind, Passacaglia op1, Sym op21, Variations op30
vocal: Lieder, sacred, five canons, Daus augenlicht
chmber: Bagatelles, chambr concerto
piano: Kinderstuck, variations op27

108

Webern Symphony op21 general

1928
chamber symphony
2 movements, same tone row
chamber;Violin,Viola,Cello,2 harp, clarinet, bassclarinet, two horns

109

Webern Symphony op21 Second Movement general and Theme

12 tone
2/4
theme and 7 variations and coda
tone row a,f#,g,g#,e,f,b,bb,d,c#,c,eb
THEME: sehr ruhig very quiet
11 measure theme
gentle relaxed
transposed inversion, retrograde inversion
klangferbenmelodie
pointillism

110

Webern Symphony op21 Second Movement - Varitions 1 ,2

Var1: Lebhafter livlier
double canone 4part muted strings
pizzicato alternates with arco

Var2: sehr lebhaft very lively
clarinet, basclarinet, horn
more rhythmic

111

Webern Symphony op21 Second Movement - Varitions 3,4

Var3: Wieder massiger again more moderately
full orchestra colour spectrum

var4: Ausserst ruhig extremely quiet
slowest tempo
dense texture (center) others mirror

112

Webern Symphony op21 Second Movement - Varitions 5,6

Var 5: sehr lebhaft very lively
strings and harp,ostinato
extended crescendo

Var 6: Marschmassig marchlike
canonic clarinet bass clarinet
sustained horns

113

Webern Symphony op21 Second Movement - Varitions 7 ,coda

Var 7: Etwas breiter somewhat broadened
full orchestra, contrary moion double canon

Coda: original row, retrograde
harp at end raindrop effect

114

Olivier Messiaen years

1908-1992

115

Olivier Messiaen Biography - youth

1908 Avignon France
dad english, mom piano
1919 Paris Conservetoire
prize winner performance theory

116

Olivier Messiaen Biography - career

1930 ogranist Saint Trinite church Paris all his life
1931 married Claire Delbos coposer violin
1936 professor Ecole Normale de musique
founder of La jeune France - composers modern french
French army WWII
1940 POW Germany
Quatuor pour la fin du temps while in prison
1941 professor Paris Conservetoire 30 yrs
students Boulez, Stockhausen, Vivier

117

Olivier Messiaen Biography - final

1944 published technique de mon langage musical - his approach rhythm and pitch
growing recogition, internationall, travelled birdsong
1962 remarried pianist Yvonne Loriod, former student
travelled Japan, Legion of Honor France
1972 USA western mountains; final works opera St Franis Assisi
1992 died age 83 declining health

118

Olivier Messiaen Style main 3

spirituality-catholic, chant melodies influenced by chant
Vingt regards sur l'enfant jesu

non-Western: structure,rhythm,harmony
ancient greek poetry Hindu music
rhythm accumulation of durations not divisions
southamerican peru folk 'Harawi'
traditional birdsong japan sept haikai

Nautre: birdsong researched transcribed
Abime des oiseaux from quartet

119

Olivier Messiaen Style other

early debussy -piano 8 preludes
major,minor,wholetone scales, octonic, others
later- serial melody rhythm, instrumentation dynamics
chords,modes as colours
nonretrogradeable rhythms palindroms

120

Olivier Messiaen Titles

organ: le banquet celeste, la nativite du seigneur
piano: preludes, 20 glances at infant jesus, catalog of birds
orchestra: Turangalila symph, exotic birds, chronochromie, canyons to the stars
chamber: quartet, le merle noir
vocal: chants of heaven and earth, harawi, the transfiguration
opera: st francis

121

Quatuor pour la fin du temps

Messiaen
1941
8 movements
chamber Clair,Viol, Cell, Piano
ABA , a with the abrupt ending, B imperceptible

122

mode of limited transposition

scale limited to fewer than usual 12 transpositions, some only once
first ; whole tone
scone: octatonic
absence of central pitch

123

sourdine

french mute
string and brass instruction use mutes
softer dynamics

124

Gyorgy Ligeti Style

Hungarian, in Romania
far influenced Europe classical tradition, non Wester
folk
humuorous
micropolyphony
East Asian harmonies West idian, African

125

Gyorgy Ligeti titles

orchestra: Apparitions, Atmosphers, Lontano
concertos: piano, violin, cello, Hamburg concerto
choral: Requiem,clocks/clouds, lux aterna
Opera; le grand macabre
amber: Adventures, chamber conerto
harpsicord: continuum, hungarian rock

126

Arvo Part Style

Estonia radio
Prokfiev, Shostakovich influenced
experimentation serial - didn't like it
collage technique borrowed music
studied middle ages renaissance
tintinnabulation
religious
spiritual minimalism - beauty of simplicity

127

Avro Part titles

choral: St John Passion, Cantate, Berliner Mese
solo vocal: Stabat Mater, My heart in the highlands
orch: Cantus Benjamin Birtten, Tabula Rasa
Inst: piano brass ensemble strings

128

tintinnabulation

latin bell
minimalism Avro 1970
two voices, one arpeggiates tonic traid, other diatonic
slow tempi

129

minimalism

1960s
little variation
tonal
trancelike
philip glass, reich, john adams