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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (68)
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1

Primatology

Study of non-human primates

2

Homologies

Similarities of organisms from common ancestry

3

Analogies

Convergent evolution

4

Strepsirhini

(Prosimians) Lemurs and Lorises
Nocturnal, no color vision, ALL ENDANGERED

5

Haplorhini

(Anthropoid) tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans

6

Platyrrhines

(New World Monkeys) small, arboreal, prehensile tail, quadrupeds

7

Catarrhines

(Old World Monkeys)

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Colobines and Cercopithecines

downward facing nostrils, ischial callosities, double-ridged molars, most are terrestrial, non-prehensile tails, sexual dimorphism

9

Hominoidea

Apes and Humans

10

Gibbons and Siamangs

Sexual dimorphism, solitary, monogamous, nuclear families, brachiation, fruit eaters, mated pairs/sings

11

Orangutans

Vegetarians, arboreal, sexual dimorphism, less social, polyandrous (females have multiple mates)

12

Gorillas (lowland and mountain)

Vegetarians, sexual dimorphism, knuckle walkers, polygynous families, inclusive fitness (silverbacks will die defending the group) ENDANGERED

13

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes- common & Pan paniscus- bonobos)

Knuckle walkers, nest in trees, less sexually dimorphic, omnivorous, polygynous, mate only during estrus cycle

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Sociality

Hallmark of nearly all the haplorhine primates and a fundamental behavioral adaptation

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Proximate Causes

Hormonal or physiological reason to act

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Reasons for sociality

Access to mates, food, predator avoidance

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Behavioral Ecology

Studies the evolutionary basis of social behavior

18

Taphonomy

The study of what happens to the remains of an animal from the time of its death to the time of its discovery

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Trace fossils

Tracks of an animal

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Coprolites

Fossilized feces

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Era

Largest division of geologic time

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Period

Divisions of eras

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Epoch

Divisions of periods

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Relative Dating

Tells us how old something is in spatial relation to something else

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Provenience

A fossil location

26

Lithostratigraphy

Using rock layer characters to correlate across regions

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Tephrostratigraphy

Using volcanic ash by chemical fingerprints to correlate across regions

28

Biostratigraphy

Draws on the first appearance of an organism in the fossil record, that organisms evolutionary development over time and the organisms extinction to correlate across regions

29

Radiocarbon Dating

Uses the amount of carbon 14 available in living creatures to determine the time of death by counting half lives (5,730 years)

30

Potassium-Argon Dating

Dates volcanic materials by measuring radioactive emissions (1.3 billion years)