UNIT 2 Biological Molecules Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UNIT 2 Biological Molecules Part 2 Deck (55):
1

Are diverse compunds that do not form macromolecules

Lipids

2

Formed by condensation, reactions are esters of fstty acids and glycerol

True lipids

3

Are the bodys main energy reservoir

Triglycerides

4

Are solids at room temperature due to the saturated hydrocarbon chains

Fats

5

Are liquids at toom twmpwrature due to the high proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbon chains

Oils

6

Such as honecomb wax are hard when warm due to esters of long chain fatty alcohols

Waxes

7

Are complex lipids made uo of sphingosine linked through a complex polar head to one long fatty acid chain

Sphingolipids e.g. Sphingomyelin

8

Have a phosphate base groups replacing one of the fatty acids in a triglycerides

Phospholipids or phosphatides

9

Have similsr solubility properties as lipids but are not fatty acids or esters

Steriods

10

A common basic structure

Steroid nucleus

11

From droplets and bilayer that enable them to carry out several functions in

Lipid molecules

12

For heat retention in animals and blubber in dividing mammals

Thermal Insulation

13

Most of the proteins in living cells are the enzymes

Enzymes/ Biological Catalyst

14

Such a change is called?
Which may be brought about by heat, pressure, acidity etc.

Denaturation

15

Which is added to the name of the substrate or the reactoon acted upon

Suffix-ase

16

Enzymes acting on phosphates

Reductases

17

Enzymes are divided into main group according to the chemical reactions they perform they are as follows:

Axido- reudctase
Transferas
Hydrolases
Lases
Isomerases
Ligases or Synthetase
Metabolic Pathway
Single enzyme- catalyzed reaction
Cofactors

18

Bring about oxidation-reduction reactions

Axido-reudctase

19

Affect the transfer of groups

Transferas

20

Influence hydrolytic reaction

Hydrolases

21

Bring about the addition or removal of a group to and from double bonds

Lyases

22

Catalyze isomerization process

Isomerases

23

Combine two or more molecules splitting the phosphate bonds

Ligases or Synthetase

24

It is a sequence of chemical reactions occuring in a cell

Metabolic Pathway

25

Maybe one of the multiple reactions in a metabolic Pathway

Single Enzyme- catalyzed reaction

26

Many enzymes are assisted by chemical substances which may be ions or molecules

Cofactors

27

Ion that may act as cofactors

Iron
Manganes
Zinc

28

Organic molecules, acting as cofactors

Coenzymes

29

NAD

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide

30

FAD

Flavin Dinucleotide

31

A key portion of the enzyme and interacts with the substrate

Active site

32

Aids the alteration of the substrate and produces the end product

Physical stress

33

The combination when the active site interacts with the substrate

Enzyme-substrate complex

34

Two metabolic Pathway

Catabolic pathways
Anabolic Pathways

35

Involved the breakdown or digestion of large complex molecules. General term is Catabolism

Catabolic Pathways

36

Involve the synthesis of large molecules, generally bu joining smaller molecules together. General term is anabolism

Anabolic Pathways

37

Is the constructive phase that requires energy

Anabolism

38

Destructive phase that release energy

Catabolism

39

Is derived from sunlight

Energy

40

Found in organic molecules represents potential energy some of which are utilized bu the plants themselves

Chemical Energy

41

Based on the mechanism of extracting energy for their own metabolism cells and organisms are grouped into following:

Autotrophic
Heterotrophic

42

Green plants,transform CO2 and H2O Into organic molecules through photosynthesis

Autotrophic

43

animals, Obtain energy from different food stuffs by autotrophic organisms

Heterotrophic

44

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate

45

Which involves an orderly series of the enzymes controlled chemical reactions

Cellular respiration

46

Are informational molecules that carry the code of life the blue prints for proteins thus ultimately controlling the life of a cell

Nucleic acid

47

Two types of Nucleic Acid

DNA
RNA

48

DNA

Deoxyribose Nucleic acid

49

RNA

ribonucleic Acid

50

Are chemical messengers, energy carrier and submits for nucleic acids and coenzymes

Nucleotides

51

Nucleotides has?

Pentose sugar
Phosphate
Nitrogen base

52

Double Helix

DNA

53

Determin how a sequence of several hundreds of amino acids is to be strong together

Genes

54

Provides the mechanism for translating DNA language into the language of protein biosynthesis

RNA

55

The assembly bu whixh the amino acids form the polypetide chain

Translation