Unit 2- DNA and Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2- DNA and Gene Expression Deck (271)
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1

Whose studies determined that DNA was the genetic material instead of Protein?

Griffin,  Hershey and Chase

2

Whose Research is this? What was the impact?

 

Griffith. He determined that DNA was the heritbale information in DNA because it was changed and reverted back to its original form.

3

Whose work was this? What was the impact?

Hershey and Chase

4

Who determined the structure and mechanism of replication of DNA?

Watson & Crick

Rosalind Franklin & Wilkins

5

Building Blocks of DNA

Nucleotides

6

Components of a Nucelotide

Deoxyribose

Phosphate

Nitrogenous Base (4 Different Types)

7

Polarity of DNA

5'->3'

8

Base Pairs in DNA

A:T G:C

9

How many base pairs are in each turn of the Double helix?

10

10

DNA Strands run _____ To each other

Antiparallel

11

How much DNA is in a human cell

2m of DNA

12

How large is a typical Cell?

20-40 Micrometers

13

Packaged DNA consists of

Single Molecule of DNA+Associated Packaging proteins (Histones)+ Scaffolding Proteins

14

Bacteria typically have _____, _____ chromosome.

Single, Circular

15

Name This Image

Karyotype

16

Each Chromosome is made up of

Single, long DNA Molecule+accompanying proteins (Chromatin)

17

Karyotypes are arranged in what pattern?

From largest to smallest, except the sex chromosomes, which are always #23

18

Functions of Chromosomes:

To Carry Genes

19

Replication Origin

Sites Where Replication begins

20

Telomeres

help overcome the End-Replication problem

21

During Mitosos, DNA is compacted to what size?

~ 10,000-75000x

22

During Interphase, DNA is compacted to what size?

~500-400x ( Less compacted than in mitosis)

23

Nucleosome

Basic Unit of Eukaryotic Chromosomes that consist of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones.

24

Histone core of nucleosomes are made of

4 different Histone proteins

25

What is the function of Linker Histone H1

Helps pack nucleosome cores more tightly

26

Levels of Chromosome Packing

DNA-> Nucleosomes

Nucleosomes (beads on a string) packaged into Chromatin Fiber

Chromatin Fiber packaged into folded loops

Folded loops packaged into Mitotic Chromosome

27

Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes 

Use ATP to Change DNA POsition along Histone cores of nucleosome

 

Can make DNA More or less accessible

28

True or false: Chromatin-remodeling Complexes are actvated during mitosis

FALSE

29

Acetyl groups ___ chromatin, making it more accessible

Open

30

Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs)

Add Acetyl Groups to Histones