Unit 2 - Multicellular Organisms Flashcards Preview

Lathallan N5 Biology > Unit 2 - Multicellular Organisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2 - Multicellular Organisms Deck (118):
1

Two matching sets of chromosomes

Diploid

2

Structures which carry genes and are found in the nucleus of a cell

Chromosomes

3

Identical copies of a chromosome produced by replication that are joined together

Chromatid

4

Centre of a cell where the chromosomes line up

Equator

5

Fibres which separate and pull the chromatids to the poles

Spindle Fibres

6

Number of chromosomes in a cell

Chromosome complement

7

Functions of mitosis

Provide new cells for growth & repair

8

Techniques used to prevent cell culture contamination

Aseptic

9

Controlled, along with pH and oxygen concentration, to provide optimum cell culture conditions

Temperature

10

Medium used in cell culture

Solid (agar) & liquid (broth)

11

Equipment that has been treated with high temperatures to kill any micro-organisms

Sterile

12

Apparatus in which cells are cultured - may be computer
controlled

Fermenter

13

A group of similar cells specialised for the same function

Tissue

14

Cells in multicellular organisms develop differently to carry out a single function

Specialised

15

Several tissues working together to carry out a single function - the heart is an example

Organs

16

Alternative term for cell division which provides new cells for growth and repair

Mitosis

17

Cells in animals that have the potential to become many different types of cell

Stem Cells

18

The brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System (CNS)

19

Part of the brain responsible for conscious thought, emotions and memory

Cerebrum

20

Area of the brain which controls balance and muscle co-ordination

Cerebellum

21

Part of the brain that controls the heart and breathing rate

Medulla

22

Neuron that carries electrical impulses from a receptor to the CNS

Sensory neuron

23

Neuron that carries an electrical impulse from the CNS to a muscle or a gland

Motor neuron

24

Fast response to danger

Reflex Action

25

Impulse along a sensory neuron via a relay neuron to a motor neuron in the spinal cord that gives a rapid response to possible damage

Reflex Arc

26

A tiny gap between two neurons

Synapse

27

Carries a message across a synapse from one neuron to the next

Chemical messenger

28

Glands that make and release hormones

Endocrine glands

29

Transports hormones from an endocrine gland to a target organ

Blood / Blood vessels

30

Protein on the surface of a target cell that is complementary to a
hormone

Receptor

31

Organ that detects a change in blood glucose

Pancreas

32

Cell that has a protein receptor that recognises a hormone

Target cell

33

Released by the pancreas in response to a decrease in blood glucose

Glucagon

34

Released by the pancreas in response to an increase in blood
glucose

Insulin

35

Organ that stores glucose as glycogen

Liver

36

Term for the control of blood glucose concentration

Regulation

37

Health condition due to the failure to release or respond to insulin

Diabetes

38

Molecule made in liver by joining together many glucose molecules

Glycogen

39

Biological term that means a double set of chromosomes

Diploid

40

Biological term that means a single set of chromosomes

Haploid

41

Alternative name for a sex cell

Gamete

42

Female gamete in plants

Ovule

43

Male gamete in plants

Pollen

44

Gamete that has a tail to swim in search of a female gamete

Sperm

45

Larger of the two animal gametes as it has a food store for the development of the zygote

Egg / Ovum

46

Part of flower that makes pollen

Anther

47

Animal organ that produces sperm

Testes

48

Animal organ that makes ova

Ovaries

49

Fusion of male and female gametes

Fertilisation

50

First cell produced by fertilisation

Zygote

51

Differences between all the individuals in a species

Variation

52

Type of variation in which there are two or more distinct groups, with no values in between

Discrete variation

53

Type of variation in which there is a wide range of values

Continuous variation

54

Example of discrete variation

Eye colour
Blood Type
Hair Colour

55

Example of continuous variation

Height
Shoe size
Hand Span

56

Term for several genes working together to produce continuous
variation

Polygenic

57

Short section of a chromosome that has the genetic information for a particular characteristic

Gene

58

Different forms of a gene

Allele

59

The most common type of variation

Polygenic and continuous

60

The appearance of an organism for
a characteristic

Phenotype

61

Alleles an organism has for a particular characteristic - usually
written as capital or small letters

Genotype

62

Allele whose effect always shows in
the phenotype

Dominant

63

Allele which is not dominant - its effect only shows when the cell does not have a dominant allele

Recessive

64

Both alleles for a characteristic are the same

Homozygous

65

One dominant and one recessive allele for a feature

Heterozygous

66

Symbol for the parents in a genetic cross

P

67

Symbol for the first generation in a genetic cross

F1

68

Symbol for the second generation in a genetic cross

F2

69

Phenotype ratio from a cross between a heterozygous parent
and a homozygous recessive parents

1:1

70

Phenotype ratio from a cross between two heterozygous parents

3:1

71

The number of 120 Drosophila flies from two heterozygous parents that would be predicted to
have the recessive characteristic
(3:1 ratio)

30

72

The number of 120 Drosophila flies from two heterozygous parents that would be predicted to have the recessive characteristic
(3:1 ratio)

30

73

The reason why the predicted and the actual results from a genetic
cross are often not the same

Fertilisation is a random process

74

The reason why the predicted and the actual results from a genetic cross are often not the same

Fertilisation is a random process

75

Name of leaf cells that carry out most photosynthesis

Palisade mesophyll

76

Specialised root cells that absorb water from the soil

Root hair cells

77

Biological term for the loss of water from the leaves

Transpiration

78

Thin layer of waterproof cells on the top and bottom of a leaf

Epidermis

79

Small pores in the leaf epidermis that allow water vapour to escape at the same time as carbon dioxide enters

Stomata

80

Cells that control the opening and closing of the stomata

Guard cells

81

Vessels that transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaves

Xylem

82

Chemical in the xylem vessels walls that provides support

Lignin

83

Living cells that transport sugar in a plant

Phloem

84

Transports nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body

Blood

85

Pumps blood around the body

Heart

86

The side of the heart that contains deoxygenated blood

Right

87

The side of the heart that contains oxygenated blood

Left

88

Where the deoxygenated blood becomes oxygenated

Lungs

89

Thin walled chambers at the top of the heart

Atrium

90

Thick walled chambers at the bottom of the heart

Ventricles

91

Between the atria and ventricles to prevent the backflow of blood

Valves

92

Blood vessel that brings blood from the body to the right atrium

Vena Cava

93

Blood vessel that transports blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Pulmonary artery

94

Blood vessel that transports blood from the lungs to the left atrium

Pulmonary Vein

95

Blood vessel that transports blood from the left ventricle to the body

Aorta

96

Blood vessel that provides the heart muscle with oxygen and glucose

Coronary artery

97

Blood vessels with thick muscular walls that carry blood under high pressure

Arteries

98

Blood vessels with thin walls and valves that carry blood under low pressure

Veins

99

Blood vessels that are thin walled to allow exchange of materials with cells

Capillaries

100

Characteristics of capillaries that make them efficient for the exchange of materials with tissues

Thin walled
Large surface area
Extensive network

101

Cells that transport oxygen

Red blood cells

102

Molecule in red blood cells that combines with oxygen in the lungs

Haemoglobin

103

Molecule formed when
haemoglobin combines with oxygen

Oxyhaemoglobin

104

Molecule formed when haemoglobin combines with oxygen

Oxyhaemoglobin

105

Parts of the lungs where gases are exchanged

Alveoli

106

Molecule that diffuses from blood into lung alveoli

Carbon dioxide

107

Molecule that that diffuses from the alveoli into the red blood cells in blood capillaries

Oxygen

108

Features of alveoli that make them more efficient for the diffusion of gases

Thin cell wall
Large surface area
Moist to allow fast diffusion

109

Traps dirt and micro-organisms in the lung airways

Mucus

110

Sweeps mucus and trapped dirt out of the lung airways

Cilia

111

Muscular contractions that move food through the digestive system

Peristalsis

112

Structures in the small intestine that absorb food molecules

Villi

113

Characteristics of the villi in the small intestine that makes them efficient at absorbing food molecules

Large surface area
Extensive capillary network
One cell thick

114

Molecules absorbed by the
capillaries in the small intestine villi

Glucose and amino acids

115

Molecules absorbed by the capillaries in the small intestine villi

Glucose and amino acids

116

Part of villus that absorbs the products of fat digestion

Lacteal

117

Type of white blood cell which engulfs pathogens

Phagocyte

118

Type of white blood cell which produces antibodies

Lymphocyte