Unit 1 - Cell Biology Flashcards Preview

Lathallan N5 Biology > Unit 1 - Cell Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1 - Cell Biology Deck (79):
1

A tough rigid outer covering which protects and supports plant, fungal and bacterial cells

Cell wall

2

Cell organelle responsible for aerobic respiration

Mitochondria

3

Cell structure responsible for photosynthesis

Chloroplast

4

Controls which molecules enter or leave a cell

Cell membrane

5

The part of a cell where chemical reactions occur

Cytoplasm

6

Plant structure containing water or sap to keep cell firm

Vacuole

7

Organelle containing chromosomes and controls cell function

Nucleus

8

Site of Protein Synthesis

Ribosome

9

Small circle of DNA that transfers genes from one bacterium to another

Plasmid

10

An example of a cell from this Kingdom is yeast

Fungus / Fungal cell

11

Organisms that do not have a cell wall

Animals

12

Organisms with cells containing chloroplasts

Plants

13

Organisms that do not have a nucleus

Bacteria

14

Coloured chemical used to make cells visible

Stain

15

Unit of measurement equivalent to 1/1000th mm

1 micrometer

16

Components of the cell membrane

Phospholipids and proteins

17

Term for only allowing certain (small) molecules to pass across membrane

Selectively permeable

18

Term meaning transport of molecules does NOT require energy

Passive

19

Difference in concentration of a substance inside and outside a cell

Concentration gradient

20

The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration DOWN the concentration gradient

Diffusion

21

The movement of WATER from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration DOWN the concentration gradient

Osmosis

22

Appearance of plant cells in strong salt solution

Plasmolysed

23

Effect of strong salt solution on animal cells

Shrivel or shrink

24

Effect of a solution with higher water concentration on animal cells

Bursts (no cell wall)

25

Appearance of plants immersed in pure water

Turgid

26

Term for the movement of a substance across the cell membrance AGAINST the concentration gradient and requiring energy

Active transport

27

Part of membrane that pumps molecules from low to high concentrations

Protein pumps

28

Molecule that diffuses into leaf for photosynthesis

Carbon Dioxide

29

Substances that diffuse out of animal cells before building up to harmful levels

Carbon dioxide
Urea

30

Molecule that diffuses into cells needed for aerobic respiration

Oxygen

31

Molecules which diffuse into cell required for protein synthesis

Amino acids

32

The shape of the DNA molecule

Double helix

33

Biological term for the reason DNA bases join together in base pairs

Complementary bases

34

The four DNA bases:

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine

35

DNA base complementary to thymine

Adenine

36

DNA base complementary to cytosine

Guanine

37

Permanent copy of genetic information for making proteins that remains in the nucleus

DNA

38

Encloses all the DNA in a (plant, animal fungal) cell

Nucleus

39

Carries a copy of the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosome

mRNA

40

Site of protein assembly

Ribosome

41

Determines the amino acid sequence in a protein

Order of bases in mRNA strand

42

Joined together to make proteins

Amino Acids

43

Type of protein that forms muscles and membranes

Structural proteins

44

Type of protein that acts as a chemical messenger that is carried in the blood

Hormones

45

Type of protein that defends the body against disease

Antibody

46

Type of protein on the cell surface with a shape complementary to a hormone

Receptor

47

Scientific term for any substance that speeds up a reaction

Catalyst

48

Type of protein that is known as a biological catalyst

Enzyme

49

The effect of a cellular reaction on
the structure of an enzyme

Enzyme remains unchanged

50

The part of an enzyme with a shape complementary to its
specific substrate

Active site

51

Molecule an enzyme changes
AND
the molecule produced

Substrate

AND

Product

52

An enzyme reaction in which a
large molecule is built up from
smaller molecules

synthesis

53

An enzyme reaction in which a
large molecule is broken down into
smaller molecules

Degradation

54

An example of a synthesis reaction

Glucose-1-phosphate molecules being joined together to form a starch molecule by the enzyme
phosphorylase

55

An example of a degradation reaction

Hydrogen peroxide broken down into oxygen and water by
the enzyme catalase

56

The temperature or pH in which an
enzyme works fastest

Optimum

57

Unable to function because of a change in shape - the reason why enzymes stop working in high temperatures

Denatured

58

Transfer of genetic information from one cell to another

Genetic Engineering

59

Biological term for a virus or plasmid used to transfer a gene

Vector

60

Used to cut the required gene from
a chromosome during genetic engineering

Enzymes

61

Example of a gene transferred from one bacterium to another naturally

Antibiotic Resistance Gene

62

Term for an organism that has an introduced gene

Genetically Modified

63

A valuable product made by transformed bacteria

Insulin
Human Growth Hormone

64

A series of reactions that release the chemical energy stored in glucose

Respiration

65

Controls the series of respiration reactions

Enzymes

66

Short term store of chemical energy

ATP

67

Needed to regenerate ATP

ADP + Pi and energy

68

Cellular activity that requires energy from ATP

Muscle cell contraction OR cell
division OR protein synthesis OR
active transport OR transmission
of nerve impulses

69

Site of the first stage of respiration

Cytoplasm

70

Site of the second stage of aerobic respiration

Mitochondria

71

Produced first when glucose is broken down in respiration

Pyruvate

72

End products of aerobic respiration

Water and Carbon Dioxide

73

Number of ATP molecules produced by the complete
breakdown of a glucose molecule
in aerobic respiration

38 ATP molecules

74

Molecule required for aerobic respiration but not fermentation

Oxygen

75

Site of fermentation in a cell

Cytoplasm

76

Number of ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule in fermentation

2 ATP molecules

77

The molecule pyruvate is converted to during fermentation in animal cells

Lactic acid

78

The molecules pyruvate is converted to during fermentation
in plant and yeast cells

Carbon Dioxide and Ethanol

79

Apparatus used to measure the
rate of respiration

Respirometer