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When is abortion legal in the UK?

• must take place in a registered medical unit with the approval of two doctors
Up to 24 weeks if:
• mental health of mother at risk
• mother's existing family's mental or physical health will suffer
Any time if:
• life/physical health of mother at risk
• reasonable chance baby will be born disabled


What is the Quaker attitude to abortion?

Although pacifists, undecided as to when a person becomes a person. Up to conscience, ∴ pro choice


What are the Church of England/Scotland attitudes to abortion?

Mainly opposed, though may be acceptable in some situations, as lesser of two evils. Recommended done ASAP ∴ pro choice sometimes


What are the Methodist/Baptist Union attitudes to abortion?

Range of opinion for when life begins. Recommended done ASAP. Prevention(e.g. Adoption, maternal support) better ∴ pro choice sometimes


What does the sanctity of life principle mean?

-God created all life like him "so God created mankind in his own image"
-All life is precious and matters to God "Aren't 5 sparrows sold for 2 pennies, yet not one sparrow is forgotten by God"
-God has a plan for everyone "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you"


What are some secular pro-life reasons?

•All lives equal, unborn children have right to life ∴ is murder
•Protects those most vulnerable w no voice
•Many people now wouldn't be alive today if mothers had had abortion
•True 'choice' would consider what father an baby want


What are some secular pro-choice reasons?

• Would prevent dangerous back street abortions
• Some babies may not survive=> less traumatic to have abortion
• If mother raped unfair to make her have baby
• Women should be able to choose what happens to their body (bodily autonomy)
• better than having any wanted child


What are the different types of euthanasia?

Non-voluntary: ending life of person in best interests when able to ask for it themselves
Voluntary: carried out at request + w full knowledge &; consent of person who dies
Active: direct act of Doctor/other person to end life of individual
Passive: when treatment that would normally help person live longer is withheld w intention of ending their life, eg. Turning off life-support


What is the current UK legislation on euthanasia?

Active and assisted suicide are illegal. However, turning off life support is legal, as the person is not really living- without it, they'd be dead


Explain why some people are against euthanasia

• abuse of system possible, e.g. Jennifer and Robert Stokes
• patients could seek pressure to release burden on family
• people in a vegetative state have been known to recover
• sanctity of life, God has a plan for us all


Explain why some people are for euthanasia

• lesser of two evils: f your quality of life is so bad, why maintain it if there are no benefits
• we have an individual right to life and death
• planned death gives you time to say goodbye- real dignity is in choosing
• allows a gentle, pain free death
• often most loving thing to do, prevents unnecessary suffering


Explain why most Christians are against euthanasia

• RCC: bad to take action to kill, or withhold treatment. This is murder=> against Decalogue
• Alternative available, e.g. Hospice movement, set up by Christian
• Salvation Army: we don't have right to shorten life, God has plan for all "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you"
• Doctor's job to help not kill. Hippocratic oath=> "first, so no harm"


Why should the media be allowed to criticise religion?

• we have free speech(key part of democracy), so it is important that media shows this
• life and death such an imp topic that people should be aware of all args, and media can teach them new ideas
• if all are voicing strong personal opinions, important that media doesn't just sit on fence
• if religions can say what they want media should also have this right Article 9 of human right- Freedom of religious belief and expression
• freedom of expression is essential for soc to make progress. Karl Popper: progress made by subjecting all ideas to scrutiny, discovering what is false and putting forward new form wo false elements ∴ for this to happen policies and rel attitudes must be scrutinised by a free media


What are some of the causes of poverty?

• war- civil war in Sudan displaced 1m, destroyed crops and homes
• Natural disasters, in Mozambique, floods destroyed farmland and homes which people depend on
• unfair trade- non-EU imports 40% tariff ∴ farmers must less crops for less than worth
• HIV/AIDS- in South Africa, 1/4 children are orphans because of aids ∴ loss of earners makes country poorer


How is christian aid working to end poverty?

• improve gender injustice, and help women earn a living
• help refugees, e.g. Provides them with hot meals, sleeping bags, also social/psychological support
• prevents excessive losses from disasters, e.g. In Thailand give farmers butterflies not crops, as can be brought inside during storms
• emergency aid- provided clean water after hurricane Matthew


Why should the media not be allowed to criticise religion beliefs?

• could stir up religious hatred
• could be offensive to believers
• criticising Pope could be seen as blasphemy
• religious attitudes are based on god's teachings and God is beyond human criticism


Why do christians believe in life after death?

• jesus was resurrected, "on the third day he rose again" ∴ we can also be ∴ (esp for evangelicals) there must be lie after death
• church teaches LaD. Apostles creed: "i believe in the resurrection of the body and life everlasting" ∴ source of authority for christians
• Jesus says christians will be brought back to life "i promise you that today you will be in paradise with me"(to their on cross) ∴ suggests LaD
• St. Paul teaches about resurrection "Christ has indeed been risen from the dead...god gives it a body as he has determined" ∴ LaD


How do beliefs on life after death affect the lives of christians?

• won't donate organs- RCC 'we believe in the true resurrection of this flesh we now posses' ∴ body ressurection so will need organs
• christians will do good- parable of sheep and goats, those who do good go to heaven, ∴ as christians want to go to heaven they will behave well
• will make christians fear death less, as believe in immortality of the soul- "the one who believes in me will live, even though they die" ∴ know its not the end
• will follow teachings of Jesus, e.g. Love thy neighbour, as he is an example for Christians. He was sent down by God so humans can overcome death and have an afterlife


What are non-religious reasons for believing in life after death?

• near death experiences. People say it like they're travelling through a tunnel, or toward a light, e.g. Research of Dr S Parnia ∴ suggests that there is life after death
• existence of spirit world. People who are spirits of the dead are sometimes visible to the living, e.g. Mediums, ouija boards ∴ people live on after they die
• reincarnation, people claim they can remember previous lives, e.g. Taranjit Singh ∴ people die then live again
• life after death needed to become better selves. Kant said moral perfection unattainable in life ∴ has to be a life after death to reach this standard


Why do some people not believe in life after death?

• science: when body dies it decays after burial ∴ nothing left of yourself to use in an afterlife
• we have no evidence from people who may be in a state of life after death- no one has returned from dead to tell us ∴ wrong to assume LaD exists
• word 'death' means it illlogical to speak of LaD as death is the end of everything, ∴ if LaD it isn't the end, so not dead
• not enough evidence of paranormal activity. Lots of hoaxes, and other explanations ∴ no concrete grounds for LaD


How is million dollar baby pro-euthanasia?

• audience sympathises w Frankie's choice to help Maggie kill herself. See father-daughter bond between them ∴ understand he's only doing it because he loves her ∴ audience understand euthanasia can be ok
• audience sympathises with Maggie's desire to be euthanised. We see how much she cares about boxing ∴ after she is aparalysed nothing to live for ∴ audience understands why a person may want to be euthanised
• euthanasia seems fair, e.g. M wants to die and when F refuses she tries to kill herself ∴ audience understand may be right to kill someone if they want it this much
• F thinks about it a lot, and finally decides to. wrestles w his conscience and talks to priest ∴ euthanasia is a rational action. Thought-out


How is million dollar baby open to debate about euthanasia?

• no opinions forced on viewer if euthanasia is right. The film is left open to decide if F right or wrong, and he do not see what happens to him after it ∴ audience can form own opinion
• shows how difficult the decision is. We see frankie's inner conflict ∴ viewer understands complexities of euthanasia
• sad when Maggie dies. We got to know her well, e.g. Her passion for boxing ∴ audience realise how difficult euthanasia is, ∴ may be against it


Is million dollar baby fair to religion?

• frankie consults his religion before decision, e.g. Speaks to priest ∴ rel can play a part in big decisions
• frankie goes against key teachings in bible by killing M ∴ disposing religion, which most C's wouldn't have done ∴ to representative


Why won't beliefs in LaD affect the way a Person lives their life?

• some people don't believed in LaD ∴ live however they want
• people want to do right things wo need for reward
• people are affected by bible/jesus's teachings
• god is loving and will forgive your sins